The Country Of Brunei ,Adobe Of peace

NATIONAL IDENTITY / OFFICIAL NAME

Negara Brunei Darussalam (The Country of Brunei, Abode of Peace).

FLAG AND CREST

The Brunei flag has four colours - a yellow backdrop, with two wide strips of white and black cutting diagonally across and the state crest in red right in the middle.

The national flag of Brunei was first used in 1906 when Brunei signed an agreement with Britain. The colours on the flag represented the signatories to the agreement - yellow for the Sultan, white for the Pengiran Bendahara and black for Pengiran Pemancha.

The National Crest, added to the centre of the flag in 1959, consists of;

• The Bendera (flag).

• The Payung Ubor-Ubor (royal umbrella).

• The Sayap (wing) which signifies justice, tranquility, prosperity and peace.

• The Tangan (hand) which represents the government's pledge to promote welfare, peace and prosperity.

• The Bulan (crescent) which symbolises Islam, the national religion of Brunei Darussalam.

The Arabic characters inscribed on the crescent reads "Always in service with God's guidance" while the words on the scroll mean "Brunei, the abode of peace".

CAPITAL CITY

Bandar Seri Begawan.

According to legend, Brunei was founded by AwangAlakBetatar.

He moved from Garang, a place in the Temburong District to the Brunei river estuary, discovering Brunei. According to legend, upon landing he exclaimed, Baru nah! (loosely translated as "that's it!" or "there"), from which the name "Brunei" was derived.

It was renamed Barunai in the 14th century, possibly influenced by the Sanskrit word "varuṇ" (वरुण), meaning either "ocean" or the mythological "regent of the ocean". The word "borneo" is of the same origin. In the country's full name, Negara Brunei Darussalam, darussalam (Arabic: دارالسلام‎) means "abode of peace", while negara means "country" in Malay.

The official national history claims that Brunei can trace its beginnings to the 7th century, when it was a subject state named Po-li, in the Sumatra-centric Srivijaya empire. It later became a vassal state of the Java-centric Majapahit empire. Brunei became a sultanate in the 14th century, under a newly converted Islamic sultan—Muhammad Shah.

At the peak of Bruneian Empire, Sultan Bolkiah (reigned 1485–1528) had control over the northern regions of Borneo, including modern-day Sarawak and Sabah, as well as the Sulu archipelago off the northeast tip of Borneo, Seludong (modern-day Manila), and the islands off the northwest tip of Borneo. The maritime state was visited by Spain's Magellan Expedition in 1521 and fought against Spain in 1578's Castille War.

Brunei is a sovereign state located on the north coast of the island of Borneo, in Southeast Asia. Apart from its coastline with the South China Sea, it is completely surrounded by the state of Sarawak, Malaysia; and it is separated into two parts by the Sarawak district of Limbang. It is the only sovereign state completely on the island of Borneo. The remainder of the island's territory is divided between the nations of Malaysia and Indonesia. Brunei's population was 408,786 in July 2012.

The Bruneian Empire began to decline; during the 19th century, the Sultanate ceded Sarawak to James Brooke as a reward for his aid in putting down a rebellion and named him as rajah; and it ceded Sabah to the British North Borneo Chartered Company. In 1888 Brunei became a British protectorate and was assigned a British Resident as colonial manager in 1906. After the Japanese occupation during World War II, in 1959 a new constitution was written. In 1962 a small armed rebellion against the monarchy was ended with the help of the British.

Brunei regained its independence from the United Kingdom on 1 January 1984. Economic growth during the 1970s and 1990s, averaging 56% from 1999 to 2008, has transformed Brunei into a newly industrialised country. It has developed wealth from extensive petroleum and natural gas fields. Brunei has the second-highest Human Development Index among the South East Asia nations after Singapore, and is classified as a developed country.According to the International Monetary Fund (IMF), Brunei is ranked fifth in the world by gross domestic product per capita at purchasing power parity. The IMF estimated in 2011 that Brunei was one of two countries (the other being Libya) with a public debt at 0% of the national GDP. Forbes also ranks Brunei as the fifth-richest nation out of 182, based on its petroleum and natural gas fields.

Brunei is divided into four districts (daerahs)and 38 subdistricts (mukims)

The daerah of Temburong is physically separated from the rest of Brunei by the Malaysian state of Sarawak.

GEOGRAPHIC LOCATION

Brunei Darussalam is situated in the south-eastern region of Asia, on the Island of Borneo, between longitudes 114'04" and 114'23" East and latitudes 4'00" and 5'05" North. Brunei, although occupying less than 1% of Borneo's land area, is the only sovereign country on the island, which it shares with the Indonesian provinces of West, East, South and Central Kalimantan and the Malaysian states of Sabah and Sarawak.

CLIMATE

Located close to the equator, Brunei Darussalam enjoys moderate equatorial climate throughout the year with temperatures ranging from 23oC to 32oC. Rainfall occurs heaviest in September to January and May to July with March and April being the warmest months. Annual rainfall averages 320cm. Humidity is high throughout the year at an estimate of 79 percent.

LAND AREA : 5,675 sq. km (with a coastline of about 161 km along the South China Sea).

POPULATION : 390,000 (2007 Key Indicator).

DENSITY : 68 persons/sq. km.

POPULATION BY RACIAL GROUP

Malays: 259,600 ,Chinese: 43,100, Others: 87,300

No. District Capital Population (2011 census) Area (km2)
1. Belait Kuala Belait 60,744 2,724
2. Brunei-Muara Bandar Seri Begawan 279,924 571
3. Temburong PekanBangar 8,852 1,304
4. Tutong PekanTutong 43,852 1,166

NATIONAL LANGUAGE

With the Malays forming the biggest ethnic group in Brunei Darussalam, Malay or Bahasa Melayu is the national and official language of the country; yet at the same time, English is widely spoken and understood particularly in the business community.

Various indigenous groups such as the Dusun, Murut and Iban speak in their respective dialects while the Chinese speak Mandarin, Hokkien and Cantonese while being equally conversant in Malay.

OFFICIAL RELIGIONS

The official religion is Islam, with the majority of the population being Muslim. Other religious beliefs such as Christianity and Buddhism are practiced freely by other ethnic group.

NATIONAL PHILOSOPHY

Since gaining independence from the British in 1984, Brunei has adopted the national philosophy of the Malay Islamic Monarchy (Melayu Islam Beraja), a system that encompasses strong Malay cultural influences, stressing the importance of Islam in daily life and governance, and respect for the monarchy as represented by His Majesty The Sultan. It is a philosophy of tolerance, which allows other cultures to follow individual traditions and to practice other religions.

ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS

4 Districts: Brunei-Muara (housing the capital city), Tutong, Belait, and Temburong

HEAD OF STATE

His Majesty Sultan Haji Hassanal Bolkiah Mu'izzaddin Waddaulah Ibni Al-Marhum Sultan Haji Omar 'Ali Saifuddien Sa'adul Khairi Waddien, Sultan and Yang Di-Pertuan of Brunei Darussalam. His Majesty is the 29th ruler of his line, which began with Sultan Muhammad in 1405.

SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT

Independent sovereign constitutional Sultanate, with His Majesty The Sultan as the supreme executive authority. His Majesty is advised by an appointed Council of Cabinet Ministers, Religious Council, Privy Council, a Council of Succession and a Legislative Council.

ECONOMY

With a total GDP of around US$6.5 billion and a per capita GDP of around US$18.3 thousand (2002), Brunei's resource-rich (oil & natural gas) economy affords its population high living standards, resulting in positive social indicators such as high literacy rates, longer life expectancy, and low unemployment and crime rates. The government provides for all medical services and subsidizes rice and housing.

Government, construction, services, retail and some light manufacturing are the other major sectors in Brunei's economy. The government is currently working towards economic diversification — in which tourism plays an important role — as well as encouraging foreign investment and developing education and human resources. These measures are designed to prepare the nation for the challenges of the future when the oil and gas reserves will have been depleted and new sources of income will be needed to maintain the current high standards of living enjoyed by Bruneians.

TOURISM INFRASTRUCTURE

With over 2,500 rooms spread among 30 establishments ranging from guesthouses to the super luxurious "7-star" Empire Hotel and Country Club, and with a dozen or so active inbound tour operators, Brunei has a well-established, yet underutilized tourism infrastructure attracting an increasing number of regional and international visitors.

TOURISM ARRIVALS

Brunei recorded approximately 1 million foreign visitors in 2003, the vast majority arriving from Malaysia through land entry points. Based on estimates derived from hotel occupancy rates and on market intelligence gathered from inbound operators, Brunei Tourism estimates the number of bona fide leisure and business tourists to be around 100,000 in 2003, with a 3-day average length of stay. Most of these tourists originated from the short- and medium-haul markets, though a significant portion originated from long-haul markets, mainly UK and Germany. Brunei Tourism’s objective is to increase international tourist arrivals by a minimum average rate of 7% yearly, as well as to increase average length of stay and expenditure.

INTERNATIONAL TRANSPORT LINKAGES

Brunei enjoys a convenient location at the heart of Southeast Asia and is well-connected to destinations worldwide.

Air:

Royal Brunei Airlines, the nation’s flagship carrier, flies non-stop or direct to most major Asia-Pacific destinations and the Middle East, as well as to Europe via London and Frankfurt. Meanwhile, Malaysia Airlines, Singapore Airlines, Thai Airways, Dragonair and Philippines Airlines serve Bandar Seri Begawan and offer one-stop connections to the rest of the world through their hubs in Kuala Lumpur, Singapore, Bangkok, Hong Kong and Manila.

Sea:

Ferries link Brunei with the Malaysian island of Labuan off the coast of Sabah, and to the Malaysian towns of Limbang and Lawas in Sarawak.

Road:

An extensive overland road network also connects Brunei to Sarawak and Sabah, while the Indonesian province of Kalimantan can be reached by road, air or boat via Sarawak or Sabah.

HEALTH, SAFETY AND SECURITY

Brunei is free from malaria and other tropical diseases, is outside the typhoon belt, has no volcanoes, and is not prone to earthquakes or other major natural disasters. The country also enjoys government stability and economic prosperity, resulting in a very low crime rate.

During the war in Nepal in 1814, the British failed to annex Nepal as part of the Empire but Army officers were impressed by the tenacity of the Gurkha soldiers and encouraged them to volunteer for the East India Company.

Gurkhas served as troops of the East India Company in the Pindaree War of 1817, in Bharatpur, Nepal in 1826, and the First and Second Sikh Wars in 1846 and 1848.

During the Sepoy Mutiny in 1857, the Gurkharegiments remained loyal to the British, and became part of the British Indian Army on its formation. The 2nd Gurkha Rifles (The Sirmoor Rifles) defended Hindu Rao's house for over three months, losing 327 out of 490 men. The 60th King's Royal Rifle Corps (later part of the Royal Green Jackets) fought alongside the Sirmoor Rifles and were so impressed that following the mutiny they insisted 2nd GR be awarded the honours of adopting their distinctive rifle green uniforms with scarlet edgings and rifle regiment traditions and that they should hold the title of riflemen rather than sepoys. Twelve Gurkha regiments also took part in the relief of Lucknow. Gurkha regiments in the British Indian Army served in both World Wars.

The Brigade of Gurkhas is the collective term for units of the current British Army that are composed of Nepalese soldiers. The brigade, which is 3,640 strong, draws its heritage from Gurkha units that originally served in the British Indian Army prior to Indian independence, and prior to that of the East India Company. The brigade includes infantry, engineer, signal, logistic and training and support units. They are famous for their ever-present kukris, a distinctive heavy knife with a curved blade, and for their reputation of being fierce fighters and brave soldiers. They take their name from the hill town of Gorkhafrom which the Nepalese Kingdom had expanded. The ranks have always been dominated by four ethnic groups: the Gurungs and Magars from central Nepal; and the Rais and Limbus from the east, who live in hill villages of hill farmers.

After Indian independence – and partition – in 1947 and under the Tripartite Agreement, six Gurkha regiments joined the post-independence Indian Army. Four Gurkha regiments, the 2nd, 6th, 7th, and 10th Gurkha Rifles, joined the British Army on 1 January 1948. They formed the Brigade of Gurkhas and were stationed in Malaya.

During the Malayan Emergency, Gurkhas fought as jungle soldiers as they had done in Burma. They also formed four new units – Gurkha Engineers, Signals, Transport and Military Police. They were also used for convoy escort duties, security of the new villages and ambushing guerrillas. In the year of Malayan independence, Gurkha Signals units monitored communications during the first free elections.

One Gurkha battalion – 2nd Gurkha Rifles - was stationed in Tidworth, Wiltshire in 1962. On 7 December, the unit was deployed to Brunei on a day's notice at the outbreak of the Brunei Revolt. The forthcoming Indonesian Confrontation saw the formation of the Gurkha Independent Parachute Company on 1 April 1963. The unit was disbanded in 1972.

The 2/5th Royal Gurkha Rifles (Frontier Force) marching through Kure soon after their arrival in Japan as part of the Allied forces of occupation

After that conflict ended, the Gurkhas were transferred to Hong Kong, where they had security duties during the upheavals of the Chinese Cultural Revolution.

The Gurkha brigade's size was reduced to 8,000 men when the British government changed its defence policy. Hong Kong became their headquarters, while other battalions were stationed in the UK and Brunei.

In 1971 the 7th Duke of Edinburgh's Gurkha Rifles moved to Queen Elizabeth Barracks at Church Crookham, Hampshire, from where they became the first Gurkhas to mount the Queen's Guard. In 1974 Turkey invaded Cyprus and the 10th Gurkha Rifles was sent to defend the British sovereign base area of Dhekelia. Later they remained there on peacekeeping duties.

On 1 July 1994 the four rifle regiments were merged into one, the Royal Gurkha Rifles, and the three corps regiments (the Gurkha Military Police having been disbanded in 1965) were reduced to squadron strength. On 1 July 1997, the British government handed Hong Kong over to the People's Republic of China, which led to the elimination of the local British garrison. Gurkha HQ and recruit training were moved to the UK, and the size of the Brigade of Gurkhas was reduced to 3,400.

Gurkhas undergoing urban warfare training in the United States. Note the kukri on the webbing of the nearest soldier.

Gurkhas have had a role in the Falklands War (1st Battalion of the 7th), Gulf War, NATO, Iraq, Afghanistan, operations in Kosovo and UN peacekeeping operations in Bosnia and East Timor. Gurkhas have also served in Sierra Leone.

Brigade HQ is based at Airfield Camp near Netheravon, Wiltshire. The two battalions of the Royal Gurkha Rifles are formed as light role infantry; they are not equipped with either armoured or wheeled vehicles. One battalion is based at Shorncliffe Army Camp, near Folkestone in Kent as part of 52 Infantry Brigade, and is available for deployment to most areas in Europe and Africa. The other is based at the British garrison in Brunei as part of Britain's commitment to maintaining a military presence in SE Asia. The two battalions rotate in each role, usually for three years at a time.

Gurkha regiments traditionally have British officers, although many officers are now themselves Gurkhas. Those who wish to receive Queen's Commissions are required to become British subjects.

Hundreds of Nepalese Gurkha soldiers who fought for Britain protested 19 March 2008 outside the Parliament of the United Kingdom in London, demanding higher pensions and the right to stay in the country they served. This sparked a national petition to entitle them to British Citizenship when their service ends.

They were also seen recently protecting Prince Harry when he was serving secretly in Afghanistan.

Training Depot Brigade of Gurkhas (TDBG)

Although Britain has been recruiting Gurkha soldiers from Nepal since the 19th century, no effort was made to develop a centralized recruit-training system in the Brigade of Gurkhas throughout the pre-Second World War era. As a result, recruiting training was conducted at the various Gurkha regimental training centres in Nepal.

The need for such centralized training establishments became apparent in the late 1940s following India's national independence, and subsequently the TDBG was established on 15 August 1951 at Sungai Petani, Kedah, Malaya.

With Malaya's independence, however, the TDBG was once again relocated to Malaya Lines in the New Territories, Hong Kong in 1971. At the TDBG in Hong Kong, recruits were taught basic English alongside military subjects such as field craft, drill, weapon-handling etc. More importantly, being in a modern city like Hong Kong, these young recruits from the hills of Nepal were given the opportunity to experience life in a different culture and environment. Such experience would be crucial for their future deployments in different corners of the world.

Due to Hong Kong's handover from the UK to China, the TDBG was closed down in December 1994. However, it was reconstituted immediately as the Gurkha Training Wing (GTW) at Queen Elizabeth Barracks at Church Crookham, Hampshire in the UK. In December 1999, the GTW moved to Helles Barracks at Catterick Garrison in North Yorkshire and became Gurkha Company, 3rd Battalion, Infantry Training Centre (ITC). Organized in two wings, A(Imphal) Wing and B(Meiktila) Wing, the company currently maintains 72 permanent staff of all ranks and 230 recruits.

Ghurkhas are born soldiers .hailing from Nepal they are known for their prowess in the fighting arts and also for their fearlessness ,the knives they carry known as Kukri are their symbols . From the times that Britain ruled India they have been part of the British army and the English could always rely on their loyalty .

The Gurkha Reserve Unit is a special guard force in the Sultanate of Brunei.

Royal Regalia Museum

The culture of Brunei is predominantly Malay (reflecting its ethnicity), with heavy influences from Islam, but is seen as much more conservative than Indonesia and Malaysia. Influences to Bruneian culture come from the Malay cultures of the Malay Archipelago. Four periods of cultural influence have occurred, animist, Hindu, Islamic, and Western. Islam had a very strong influence, and was adopted as Brunei's ideology and philosophy.

As a Sharia country, the sale and public consumption of alcohol is banned. Non-Muslims are allowed to bring in a limited amount of alcohol from their point of embarkation overseas for their own private consumption.

This small, wealthy economy is a mixture of foreign and domestic entrepreneurship, government regulation, welfare measures, and village tradition. Crude oil and natural gas production account for about 90% of its GDP. About 167,000 barrels (26,600 m3) of oil are produced every day, making Brunei the fourth-largest producer of oil in Southeast Asia. It also produces approximately 25.3 million cubic metres (8.95×108 cu ft) of liquified natural gas per day, making Brunei the ninth-largest exporter of the substance in the world.

Substantial income from overseas investment supplements income from domestic production. Most of these investments are made by the Brunei Investment Agency, an arm of the Ministry of Finance. The government provides for all medical services, and subsidises rice and housing.

The national air carrier, Royal Brunei Airlines, is trying to develop Brunei as a modest hub for international travel between Europe and Australia/New Zealand. Central to this strategy is the position that the airline maintains at London Heathrow Airport. It holds a daily slot at the highly capacity-controlled airport, which it serves from Bandar Seri Begawan via Dubai. The airline also has services to major Asian destinations including Shanghai, Bangkok, Singapore and Manila.

Brunei depends heavily on imports such as agricultural products (e.g. rice, food products, livestock, etc.), motorcars and electrical products from other countries. Brunei imports 60% of its food requirements, of that amount, around 75% come from the ASEAN countries.

Brunei's leaders are very concerned that steadily increased integration in the world economy will undermine internal social cohesion. But, it has become a more prominent player by serving as chairman for the 2000 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) forum. Leaders plan to upgrade the labour force, reduce unemployment, which currently stands at 6%; strengthen the banking and tourism sectors, and, in general, broaden the economic base.

It is promoting food self-sufficiency. Brunei renamed its Brunei Darussalam Rice 1 as Laila Rice during the launch of the "Padi Planting towards Achieving Self-Sufficiency of Rice Production in Brunei Darussalam" ceremony at the Wasanpadi fields in April 2009. In August 2009, the Royal Family reaped the first few Lailapadi stalks, after years of attempts to boost local rice production, a goal first articulated about half a century ago. In July 2009 Brunei launched its national halal branding scheme, Brunei Halal, with a goal to export to foreign markets.

Petroleum was discovered in 1929 after several fruitless attempts. Two men, F.F. Marriot and T.G. Cochrane, smelled oil near the Seria river in late 1926. They informed a geophysicist, who conducted a survey there. In 1927, gas seepages were reported in the area. Seria Well Number One (S-1) was drilled on 12 July 1928. Oil was struck at 297 metres (974 ft) on 5 April 1929. Seria Well Number 2 was drilled on 19 August 1929, and, as of 2009, continues to produce oil. Oil production was increased considerably in the 1930s with the development of more oil fields. In 1940, oil production was at more than six million barrels. The British Malayan Petroleum Company (now Brunei Shell Petroleum Company) was formed on 22 July 1922. The first offshore well was drilled in 1957. Oil and natural gas have been the basis of Brunei's development and wealth since the late 20th century.

There are two temples in Brunei both in the Ghurkha army camps ,one in the capital and the other in Serria around 70km from Bandar Seri Begawan

The town also has lovely cottages some built in Canadian fashion with imported Canadian logs mostly for the Shell employees.

The temple itself was quite and serene one entered into a small corridor of hanging bells on the left was the famous Dollar Ganapati known because so because devotees believed that praying to him with a dollar would grant their wishes and there were lot of Brunei one dollar bills on his feet ! then there were the navagrahas under a nice tree there was a Shiva lingha next. The main hall had a collection of deities the central one goddess Durga.The big hall had nice seats to rest and pray ,on the other end was a Buddhist corner with flower bedecked photos of the Bodhisattva .

The whole place was kept neat and pristine and many Indians visited the temple there also was a big Supaa save mall nearby with a wide collection of shopping solace

Brunei is a southeast Asian country located on Borneo between the states of Sabah and Sarawak which are part of Malaysia. There is a wide array of native folk music, and dance. Brunei shares some Cultural perspectives and links with the countries of South East Asia such as Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Thailand, Philippines. Although Brunei has similarities with others, there are significant differences in terms of culture and heritage including its folk music, folk dance, and folk stories. The strong Islamic influence means that dance performances and music are somewhat restricted.

Folk music

Adai-adai is a group work song sung by fisherpeople while they fished. Another folk dance is the Benari, or JogetBajuPutih, performed during numerous festivals. It is usually performed by three men and three women.

Kedayan music

Aduk-Aduk is a ceremonial dance performed by the Kedayan people during holidays, especially at the end of the harvest season. Dancers wear traditional warrior's attire, in tengkolok, red belt and black clothing, and dance to the beat of silat, a Malay martial art. This dance is accompanied by percussion instruments, including drums and coconut shells.

Malay music

The Malay population are known for the Jipin or Zapin dance, performed by six men and women, accompanied by instruments that include the gambusdanbiola, dombak and rebana. Gongs like the Gulingtangan (a set of small gongs), duck gongs and other styles are played. Malay folk music is played by accomplished musicians at special feats and celebrations. Responsive singing is sometimes performed at weddings, with the guests joining in. The song "AlusJuaDindang" is also an important part of Bruneian wedding music; in it, the groom (who, in a traditional wedding does not know the bride beforehand), flatters and declares his devotion to his new wife.

Music institutions

The Brunei Music Society has been organising concerts of mainly Western classical music since its founding in 1972. These concerts are usually held at the Orchid Garden Hotel in BSB.

Women

The government has made efforts to protect women's rights.[96] The law prohibits sexual harassment and stipulates that whoever assaults or uses criminal force, intending thereby to outrage or knowing it is likely to outrage the modesty of a person, shall be punished with imprisonment for as much as five years and caning. The law stipulates imprisonment of up to 30 years, and caning with no fewer than 12 strokes for rape. The law does not criminalise spousal rape; it explicitly states that sexual intercourse by a man with his wife, as long as she is not under 13 years of age, is not rape. Protections against sexual assault by a spouse are provided under the amended Islamic Family Law Order 2010 and Married Women Act Order 2010. The penalty for breaching a protection order is a fine not exceeding BN$2,000 ($1,538) or imprisonment not exceeding six months. During the year 23 rape cases were reported; at year's end police were investigating 11 and had forwarded 10 to the Attorney General Chambers.

There is no specific domestic violence law, but arrests have been made in domestic violence cases under the Women and Girls Protection Act. The police investigate domestic violence only in response to a report by a victim. The police were generally responsive in the investigation of such cases. During the year a total of 62 cases of spousal dispute abuse reported; at year's end, 55 cases were under investigation, and eight had been forwarded to the Attorney General Chambers. The criminal penalty for a minor domestic assault is one to two weeks in gaol and a fine. An assault resulting in serious injury is punishable by caning and a longer prison sentence.

A special unit staffed by female officers has been established within the police department to investigate domestic abuse and child abuse complaints. A hotline was available for persons to report domestic violence. The Ministry of Culture, Youth, and Sport's Department of Community Development provides counseling for women and their spouses. Based on individual circumstances, some female and minor victims were placed in protective custody while waiting for their cases to be brought to court. Islamic courts staffed by male and female officials offered counseling to married couples in domestic violence cases. Officials did not encourage wives to reconcile with flagrantly abusive spouses. Islamic courts recognise assault as grounds for divorce.

Couples and individuals have the right to decide the number, spacing, and timing of their children, and have access to contraceptive devices and methods through the government and private clinics. According to information gathered by the UN, in 2008 the maternal mortality rate was an estimated 21 deaths per 100,000 live births. Citizens enjoy free medical and health care, including skilled attendance during childbirth, prenatal care, and essential obstetric and postpartum care. Women had equal access to diagnostic and treatment facilities for sexually transmitted diseases. Women had equal access to HIV treatment and counseling, as well as follow-up treatment.

In accordance with the government's interpretation of Qur'anic precepts, Muslim women have rights similar to those of Muslim men in areas such as divorce and child custody. Islamic law requires that males receive twice the inheritance of women. Civil law permits female citizens to pass their nationality on to their children and to own property and other assets, including business properties. Women with permanent positions in the government can now apply for travel allowances for their children. They cannot do so for husbands working in the private sector. With this exception, they receive the same allowance privileges as their college-educated male counterparts. According to government statistics, women made up 57 percent of the civil service force and held 28 percent of senior management posts. Women are not discriminated against in access to employment and business.

Children

Citizenship is derived through one's parents rather than through birth within the country's territory. Parents with stateless status are required to apply for a special pass for a child born in the country; failure to register a child may make it difficult to enrol the child in school. By law sexual intercourse with a female under 14 years of age constitutes rape and is punishable by imprisonment for not less than eight years and not more than thirty years and not less than twelve strokes of the cane. The intent of the law is to protect girls from exploitation through prostitution and "other immoral purposes" including pornography.

Homosexuality

Male homosexuality is illegal in Brunei and can be punished with up to 10 years imprisonment or a fine of $30,000. There are no prohibitions on female homosexuality.

Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin Mosque at night

The population of Brunei in July 2011 was 401,890 of which 76% live in urban areas. The average life expectancy is 76.37 years. In 2004, 66.3% of the population were Malay, 11.2% are Chinese, and 3.4% are indigenous, with smaller groups making up the rest.

The official language of Brunei is Malay. The Ministry of Culture, Youth and Sports supports for a lingual movement aimed at the increased use of the language in Brunei[why?]. The principal spoken language is Melayu Brunei (Brunei Malay). Brunei Malay is rather divergent from standard Malay and the rest of the Malay dialects, being about 84% cognate with standard Malay, and is mostly mutually unintelligible with it. English and Chinese are also widely spoken, English is also used in business, as a working language, and as the language of instruction from primary to tertiary education, and there is a relatively large expatriate community. Other languages spoken include Kedayan, Tutong, Murut, Dusun and Iban.

Islam is the official religion of Brunei, and two-thirds of the population adheres to Islam. Other faiths practised are Buddhism (13%, mainly by the Chinese) and Christianity (10%).Freethinkers, mostly Chinese, from about 7% of the population. Although most of them practise some form of religion with elements of Buddhism, Confucianism and Taoism, they prefer to present themselves as having practised no religion officially, hence labelled as atheists in official censuses. Followers of indigenous religions are about 2% of the population.

Media in Brunei are said to be pro-government. The country has been given "Not Free" status by Freedom House; press criticism of the government and monarchy is rare. Nonetheless, the press is not overtly hostile toward alternative viewpoints and is not restricted to publishing only articles regarding the government. The government allowed a printing and publishing company, Brunei Press PLC, to form in 1953. The company continues to print the English daily Borneo Bulletin. This paper began as a weekly community paper and became a daily in 1990. Apart from the Borneo Bulletin, there is also the Media Permata and Pelita Brunei, the local Malay newspapers which are circulated daily. The Brunei Times is another English independent newspaper published in Brunei since 2006.

The Brunei government owns and operates six television channels with the introduction of digital TV using DVB-T (RTB 1, RTB 2, RTB 3 (HD), RTB 4, RTB 5 and RTB New Media (Game portal) and five radio stations (National FM, Pilihan FM, Nur Islam FM, Harmony FM and Pelangi FM). A private company has made cable television available (Astro-Kristal) as well as one private radio station, Kristal FM. It also has an online campus radio station, UBD FM that streams from its first university, Universiti Brunei Darussalam'.

Royal Brunei Armed Forces

Brunei maintains three infantry battalions stationed around the country. The Brunei navy has several "Ijtihad"-class patrol boats purchased from a German manufacturer. The United Kingdom also maintains a base in Seria, the centre of the oil industry in Brunei. A Gurkha battalion consisting of 1,500 personnel is stationed there. United Kingdom military personnel are stationed there under a defence agreement signed between the two countries.

A Bell 212 operated by the air force crashed in Kuala Belait on 20 July 2012 with the loss of 12 of the 14 crew on board. The cause of the accident has yet to be ascertained. The crash is the worst aviation incident in the history of Brunei.

The Army is currently acquiring new equipment, including UAVs and S-70i Black Hawks.

Brunei International Airport

The population centers in the country are linked by a network of 2,800 kilometres (1,700 mi) of road. The 135-kilometre (84 mi) highway from Muara Town to Kuala Belait is being upgraded to a dual carriageway.

Brunei is accessible by air, sea, and land transport. Brunei International Airport is the main entry point to the country. Royal Brunei Airlines is the national carrier. There is another airfield, the Anduki Airfield, located in Seria. The ferry terminal at Muara services regular connections to Labuan (Malaysia). Speedboats provide passenger and goods transportation to the Temburong district. The main highway running across Brunei is the Tutong-Muara Highway. The country's road network is well developed. Brunei has one main sea port located at Muara.

The airport in Brunei is currently being extensively upgraded. Changi Airport International is the consultant working on this modernisation, which planned cost is currently $150 million. This project is slated to add 14,000 square metres (150,000 sq ft) of new floor space and includes a new terminal and arrival hall. With the completion of the this project, the annual passenger capacity of the airport is expected to double from 1.5 to 3 million.

With one private car for every 2.09 persons, Brunei has one of the highest car ownership rates in the world. This has been attributed to the absence of a comprehensive transport system, low import tax and low unleaded petrol price of B$0.53 per litre.

A new 30-kilometre (19 mi) roadway connecting the Muara and Temburong districts of Brunei is slated to be completed in 2018. Fourteen kilometres (9 mi) of this roadway would be crossing the Brunei Bay.

Healthcare in Brunei is charged at B$1 per consultation for citizens. A health centre run by Brunei Shell Petroleum is located in Panaga. For medical assistance not available in the country, citizens are sent overseas at the government's expense. In the period of 2011–12, 327 patients were treated in Malaysia and Singapore at the cost to the government of $12 million. The largest hospital in Brunei is Raja IsteriPengiranAnakSaleha Hospital (RIPAS) hospital, which has 538 beds, is situated in the country's capital Bandar Seri Begawan. There are two private medical centres, Gleneagles JPMC SdnBhd . and Jerudong Park Medical Centre. The Health Promotion Centre opened in November 2008 and serves to educate the public on the importance of having a healthy lifestyle.

There is currently no medical school in Brunei, and Bruneians wishing to study to become doctors must attend university overseas. However, the Institute of Medicines had been introduced at the Universiti Brunei Darussalam and a new building has been built for the faculty. The building, including research lab facilities, was completed in 2009. There has been a School of Nursing since 1951. Fifty-eight nurse managers were appointed in RIPAS to improve service and provide better medical care. In December 2008, The nursing college merged with the Institute of Medicines at the University Brunei Darussalam to produce more nurses and midwives. It is now called the PAPRSB PengiranAnakPuteriRashidahSa'datulBolkiah) Institute of Health Sciences.

The local currency is the Brunei Dollar (BND). Dollar notes are available in $1, $5, $10, $50, $100, 500 and $1,000 denominations, while coins are in 1, 5, 10, 20, and 50 cent denominations. The Brunei Dollar is pegged to the value of the Singapore Dollar and both currencies can be used in Brunei. GBP1.00 = BND 2.06 approx.

USD1.00 = BND1.28 approx.

EUR1.00 = BND1.77 approx.

GBP1.00 = BND 2.06 approx.

AUD1.00 = BND 1.27 approx.

Malay speakers worldwide - 30 million

Malay speaking countries are

Brunei,Indonesia,Malaysia,Philippines,Singapore,Thailand

Language family

Austronesian > Malayo-Polynesian > Nuclear Malay-Polynesian > Sunda-Sulawesi > Malayic > Malayan > Local Malay > Malay

Bahasa Melayu (Malay) is the official language, but English is widely spoken. Mandarin, Chinese dialects and native languages of Borneo are also spoken by segments of the population.

Any small effort to demonstrate your enthusiasm for learning Brunei’s culture will be most appreciated by the Bruneians, who have a deep respect for their centuries-rich Malay culture. While no Bruneian expects a visitor to have mastered the Malay language and most speak at least conversational English, a few useful words and phrases will help make your stay even more enjoyable.

English Malay
Good morning! Selamat pagi!
Good afternoon! Selamat tengah hari!
Good evening! Selamat petang!
Welcome! (to greet someone) Selamat datang!
Hello my friend! Helo kawanku!
How are you? (friendly) Pe khabar?
How are you? (polite) Awak apa khabar? / Apa khabar?
I'm fine, thank you! Sihat!
And you? (friendly) Awak?
And you? (polite) Awak?
Good Sihat
Not so good Tidak berapa sihat
Long time no see Lama tidak jumpa
I missed you Saya rindukan awak
What's new? Apa cerita?
Nothing new Tidak ada apa-apa / Sama saja
Thank you (very much)! Terima kasih (banyak-banyak/ sangat-sangat)!
You're welcome! (for "thank you") Sama-sama
You're welcome! (for "thank you") Sama-sama
My pleasure Sama-sama
Come in! (or: enter!) Sila masuk!
You're welcome! (for "thank you") Sama-sama
Make yourself at home! Sila buat macam rumah sendiri!
Farewell Expressions Ekspresi Perpisahan
Have a nice day! NA
Good night! Selamat malam!
Good night and sweet dreams! Selamat malam!
See you later! Jumpa lagi!
See you soon! Jumpa lagi!
See you tomorrow! Jumpa lagi esok!
Good bye! Bye!
Have a good trip! Selamat jalan!
I have to go Saya perlu minta diri dahulu
I will be right back! Tunggu sekejap

English Malay
Holidays and Wishes Mengucapkan Sesuatu Kepada Seseorang
Good luck! Semoga berjaya!
Happy birthday! Selamat Hari Jadi!
Happy new year! Selamat Tahun Baru!
Merry Christmas! Selamat Hari Natal!
Happy Raya! Selamat Hari Raya!
Happy Chinese New Year! Selamat Tahun Baru Cina!
Congratulations! Tahniah!
Enjoy! (or: bon appetit) Silakan!
Bless you (when sneezing) Semoga awak diberkati
Best wishes! Semoga berjaya!
Cheers! (or: to your health) NA
Accept my best wishes Sila terima ucapan selamat saya
How to Introduce Yourself Bagaimana Memperkenalkan Diri Anda
What's your name? Siapa nama awak?
My name is (John Doe) Nama saya John Doe
Nice to meet you! Salam/ Selamat berkenalan!
Where are you from? Awak dari mana?
I'm from (the U.S/ Malaysia) Saya dari Amerika Syarikat/ Malaysia
I'm (American/ Malay) Saya orang Amerika Syarikat/ Malaysia
Where do you live? Awak tinggal di mana?
I live in (the U.S/ Malaysia) Saya tinggal di Amerika Syarikat/ Malaysia
Do you like it here? Awak suka (tinggal) di sana?
Malaysia is a beautiful country Malaysia negara yang cantik
What do you do for a living? Apa pekerjaan awak?
I'm a (teacher/ student/ engineer) Saya seorang (guru/ pelajar/ jurutera)
Do you speak (English/ Malay)? Awak boleh bercakap Bahasa Inngeris/ Bahasa Melayu?
Just a little Sedikit-sedikit
I like Malay Saya suka Bahasa Melayu
I'm trying to learn Malay Saya sedang cuba belajar Bahasa Melayu
It's a hard language Ia bahasa yang susah
It's an easy language Ia bahasa yang mudah
Oh! That's good! Oh! Baguslah begitu!
Can I practice with you? Boleh saya berlatih dengan kamu?

Prayer time for Tutong District are to be added one minute and three minutes for Belait District. Friday prayer starts from 12.45pm across Brunei Darussalam.

IMSAK SUBUH SYURUK DOHA ZUHUR ASAR MAGHRIB ISYAK
04.41 AM 04.51 AM 06.13 AM 06.38 AM 12.11 PM 03.33 PM 06.05 PM 07.19 PM
04.42 AM 04.52 AM 06.13 AM 06.38 AM 12.11 PM 03.33 PM 06.06 PM 07.20 PM
04.42 AM 04.52 AM 06.14 AM 06.39 AM 12.12 PM 03.33 PM 06.06 PM 07.20 PM
04.42 AM 04.52 AM 06.14 AM 06.39 AM 12.12 PM 03.34 PM 06.06 PM 07.21 PM
04.43 AM 04.53 AM 06.15 AM 06.40 AM 12.12 PM 03.34 PM 06.07 PM 07.21 PM
04.43 AM 04.53 AM 06.15 AM 06.40 AM 12.13 PM 03.35 PM 06.07 PM 07.22 PM
04.44 AM 04.54 AM 06.16 AM 06.40 AM 12.14 PM 03.35 PM 06.08 PM 07.22 PM
04.44 AM 04.54 AM 06.17 AM 06.42 AM 12.14 PM 03.36 PM 06.08 PM 07.23 PM
04.45 AM 04.55 AM 06.17 AM 06.42 AM 12.14 PM 03.36 PM 06.09 PM 07.23 PM
04.46 AM 04.56 AM 06.18 AM 06.43 AM 12.15 PM 03.37 PM 06.10 PM 07.24 PM
04.46 AM 04.56 AM 06.19 AM 06.44 AM 12.16 PM 03.38 PM 06.10 PM 07.25 PM
04.47 AM 04.57 AM 06.19 AM 06.44 AM 12.16 PM 03.38 PM 06.11 PM 07.25 PM
04.47 AM 04.57 AM 06.20 AM 06.45 AM 12.17 PM 03.39 PM 06.11 PM 07.26 PM
04.48 AM 04.58 AM 06.21 AM 06.46 AM 12.18 PM 03.40 PM 06.12 PM 07.27 PM
04.48 AM 04.58 AM 06.21 AM 06.46 AM 12.18 PM 03.40 PM 06.12 PM 07.27 PM
04.49 AM 04.59 AM 06.22 AM 06.47 AM 12.19 PM 03.41 PM 06.13 PM 07.28 PM
04.49 AM 04.59 AM 06.22 AM 06.47 AM 12.19 PM 03.41 PM 06.13 PM 07.28 PM
04.50 AM 05.00 AM 06.23 AM 06.48 AM 12.20 PM 03.42 PM 06.14 PM 07.29 PM
04.50 AM 05.00 AM 06.23 AM 06.48 AM 12.20 PM 03.42 PM 06.14 PM 07.29 PM
04.51 AM 05.01 AM 06.24 AM 06.49 AM 12.21 PM 03.43 PM 06.15 PM 07.30 PM
04.51 AM 05.01 AM 06.24 AM 06.49 AM 12.21 PM 03.43 PM 06.15 PM 07.30 PM
04.52 AM 05.02 AM 06.25 AM 06.50 AM 12.22 PM 03.44 PM 06.16 PM 07.31 PM
04.52 AM 05.02 AM 06.25 AM 06.50 AM 12.22 PM 03.44 PM 06.16 PM 07.31 PM
04.53 AM 05.03 AM 06.26 AM 06.51 AM 12.23 PM 03.45 PM 06.17 PM 07.32 PM
04.53 AM 05.03 AM 06.26 AM 06.51 AM 12.23 PM 03.45 PM 06.17 PM 07.32 PM
04.54 AM 05.04 AM 06.27 AM 06.52 AM 12.24 PM 03.46 PM 06.18 PM 07.33 PM
04.54 AM 05.04 AM 06.27 AM 06.52 AM 12.24 PM 03.46 PM 06.18 PM 07.33 PM
04.55 AM 05.05 AM 06.27 AM 06.53 AM 12.25 PM 03.47 PM 06.19 PM 07.34 PM

The Royal Brunei Armed Forces was formed on 31 May 1961. Known as the AskarMelayu Brunei, (Brunei Malay Regiment in Malay) it was honoured with the royal title on 31 May 1965, when the word 'Diraja' (Royal in Malay) was added to the title. It was then known as AskarMelayuDiraja Brunei, (Royal Brunei Malay Regiment). Since Independence Day, 1 January 1984, the Royal Brunei Malay Regiment has been renamed as the AngkatanBersenjataDiraja Brunei (Royal Brunei Armed Forces in Malay). Only Brunei citizens of the Malay ethnicity (Bumiputera) are allowed to enlist in the Royal Brunei Armed Forces. The Malay ethnicity comprises the Belait, Bisaya, Brunei, Dusun, Kedayan, Murut, and Tutong indigenous races as defined in the Brunei constitution. Military service is not compulsory for any segment of the population; there is no conscription.

The Royal Brunei Armed Forces (RBAF) use a wide range of foreign equipment, with a large percentage originating from the United Kingdom, France/Europe and the United States. The Royal Brunei Armed Forces is the largest of the armed services, with a relatively small air force and navy. The Bruneian military lacks any recent combat experience but has been deployed regionally in humanitarian and peacekeeping missions. Brunei also has extensive military relations with Singapore. In 31 May 2011, Royal Brunei Armed Forces reached its golden jubilee.

The Role of Royal Brunei Armed Forces is to:

Deter any outside powers intending to undermine directly or indirectly in the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the State of Brunei, and to prevent any subversive elements actual or potential operating in the State of Brunei;

• Undertake military operations to counter aggression, terrorism or insurgency;

• Assist in maintenance of public order in support of the Police and Civil Authority, if called upon

• Maintain good Community relations by which the Royal Brunei Armed Forces can be identified with the Government and Civil population of Brunei.

The Royal Brunei Armed Forces is divided into four branches:

• Royal Brunei Land Forces Institute

• Royal Brunei Air Force

• Royal Brunei Navy

• Training