Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin Mosque at night

The population of Brunei in July 2011 was 401,890 of which 76% live in urban areas. The average life expectancy is 76.37 years. In 2004, 66.3% of the population were Malay, 11.2% are Chinese, and 3.4% are indigenous, with smaller groups making up the rest.

The official language of Brunei is Malay. The Ministry of Culture, Youth and Sports supports for a lingual movement aimed at the increased use of the language in Brunei[why?]. The principal spoken language is Melayu Brunei (Brunei Malay). Brunei Malay is rather divergent from standard Malay and the rest of the Malay dialects, being about 84% cognate with standard Malay, and is mostly mutually unintelligible with it. English and Chinese are also widely spoken, English is also used in business, as a working language, and as the language of instruction from primary to tertiary education, and there is a relatively large expatriate community. Other languages spoken include Kedayan, Tutong, Murut, Dusun and Iban.

Islam is the official religion of Brunei, and two-thirds of the population adheres to Islam. Other faiths practised are Buddhism (13%, mainly by the Chinese) and Christianity (10%).Freethinkers, mostly Chinese, from about 7% of the population. Although most of them practise some form of religion with elements of Buddhism, Confucianism and Taoism, they prefer to present themselves as having practised no religion officially, hence labelled as atheists in official censuses. Followers of indigenous religions are about 2% of the population.