Royal Regalia Museum

The Royal Regalia Museum (Bangunan Alat Kebesaran Diraja) was established to commemorate the 1992 Silver Jubilee of His Majesty's accession to the throne.

The hall was built on the site of the Winston Churchill Memorial Building which has been renamed, modernised and considerably extended. The hall's central feature is a spectacular new circular gallery topped with a mosaic-tiled dome which sits in the cup of the original crescent-shaped building, constructed in 1971.

Pride of place is given to the royal coronation carriage surrounded by regalia from the royal crowning ceremony. To the left of the main entrance is the Constitutional History Gallery, set up in 1984 as part of the country's independence celebrations. This traces the history of the constitution and the development of from 1847 when the first Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation was signed with Britain. On permanent show are documents, photographs, rare recordings and films while a large area concentrates on the proclamation of the 1959 constitution - the country's first written constitution. To the right is gallery devoted to the life of His Majesty up to the time of the coronation. It recreates his early childhood and chronicles his schooling in Brunei Darussalam, Malaysia and finally in Britain at the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst.

The coronation scene at the Lapau in 1968 is depicted using models, pictures, words and exhibits including His Majesty's gold crown, Golden Hands (which are depicted on the Royal state crest), the symbolic Golden Cats, his silver kris, costume and orchestral instruments used during the ceremony. Film footage of the magnificent ceremony is screened in a small theatrette. The displays, which include historic pictures of His Majesty meeting his people afterwards in the mosque and in the districts, also cover independence and His Majesty's return from the Haj.

The museum is open to the general public and entrance is free.

Visiting hours:

Saturday to Thursday: 8:30am - 5pm

Friday: 9am - 11:30am & 2:30pm - 5pm

Brunei Museum

The Brunei Museum was established in 1965, with its first administrative office at the Civic Centre in Bandar Brunei, now known as Bandar Seri Begawan. Given approval for a building of its own, a location was selected for the museum, on a historical site, at Kota Batu about 5km from Bandar Seri Begawan.

Brunei Museum (Muzium Brunei) - Located on an archeological site at Kota Batu about 5 km (3.1 mi) from Bandar Seri Begawan, this museum is the largest in the country. It was first established in 1965 and occupied its present site since 1970. Officially opened in 1972, the museum focuses on Islamic history, natural history, Brunei artifacts and customs, ceramics and the oil industry of Brunei. The museum is reachable by public transport (Bus No. 39). Its exhibition galleries consist of the following:

Islamic Art Gallery: The gallery displays a magnificent collection of Islamic art belonging to the sultan, Hassanal Bolkiah and is the main highlight. The collection comprises a wide range of objects covering the artistic production of various Islamic regions from the transitional and early Islamic periods to the 19th century.

The History and Technology of Brunei Darussalam's Petroleum Gallery: The state's main industry is presented in this gallery, covering descriptive narratives on the origin and formation of oil, process of drilling, refining, the history of the petroleum industry in Brunei and a map depicting current oil fields. Brunei Traditional Culture Gallery: Brunei's material culture is presented in this gallery. The objects displayed in the gallery shows the customs and the culture of the people from the birth till marriage. There is also a fine collection of brassware, and especially canons for which the country is traditionally renowned.

Natural History Gallery: The gallery exhibits a wide range of natural history subjects and especially the fauna of Brunei. Some of the exhibits are presented in the form of diorama techniques to form a realistic form of their natural habitat.

Brunei Darussalam Archeology and History Exhibition Gallery: It exhibits the history of the country beginning from the prehistoric period up to independence in 1984.

Contact Details : Street Address: Brunei Museums Department, Ministry of Culture, Youth and Sports, Jalan Menteri Besar, BB3910, Brunei Darussalam

Malay Technology Museum

Malay Technology Museum - The museum was officially opened in 1988.

The Malay Technology Museum (Muzium Teknologi Melayu) is located at Kota Batu, in the capital city ofBandar Seri Begawan, Brunei-Muara District, Brunei. It is situated next to the Brunei Museum. The building was donated by the Royal Dutch/Shell Group of companies, in conjunction with the Sultanate's independence in 1984. The museum was officially opened by His Majesty the Sultan on 29 February 1988. Featuring how things were done in ancient times, there are displays in boatmaking, fishing, metalworking and goldsmithing.

The museum has 3 exhibition halls:

Water Village Traditional House Gallery: This gallery shows architectural structure of houses in the water village - Kampong Ayer in the late 19th up to the mid 20th century.

Water Village Traditional Technology Gallery: This gallery depicts various types of handicrafts and cottage industries found in the water village. The display includes boat construction, roof-making, gold smiting, silver smiting, brass casting and cloth weaving.

Inland Traditional Technology Gallery: This gallery contains exhibits of indigenous technologies of the in land people. It shows models of Kedayan, Dusun and Murut houses and a Punan hut. Techniques of production of Sago, brown sugar and handicrafts are also displayed.

Kampong Ayer

Kampong Ayer, or the Water Village (Malay: Kampong Ayer) is an area of Brunei's capital city Bandar Seri Begawan that is situated after the Brunei Bay. 39,000 people live in the Water Village. This represents roughly ten percent of the nation's total population. All of the Water Village buildings are constructed on stilts above the Brunei River.

Built entirely of stilt houses and wooden walkways, this cluster of 42 villages housing more than 30,000 inhabitants is the world's largest water village. Antonio Pigafetta refer to it as the 'Venice of the East. The Water Village is really made up of small villages linked together by more than 29,140 meters of foot-bridges, consisting of over 4200 structures including homes, mosques, restaurants, shops, schools, and a hospital. 36 kilometers of boardwalks connect the buildings. Private water taxis provide rapid transit.

Most of these taxis resemble long wooden speed boats. From a distance the water village looks like a slum. It actually enjoys modern amenities including air conditioning, satellite television, Internet access, plumbing, and electricity. Some of the residents keep potted plants and chickens.

The district has a unique architectural heritage of wooden homes with ornate interiors. The villages in Water Village are Mukim Sungai Kedayan including Bukit Salat, Sumbiling Lama, Sungai Kedayan 'A', Sungai Kedayan 'B', Ujong Tanjong and Kuala Peminyak; Mukim Tamoi including Tamoi Ujong, Tamoi Tengah, Pengiran Kerma Indera Lama, Pengiran Tajuddin Hitam, Ujong Bukit/Limbongan, Pengiran Bendahara Lama; Mukim Burong Pingai Ayer including Burong Pingai Ayer, Lurong Dalam, Pandai Besi 'A', Pandai Besi 'B', Sungai Pandan 'A', Sungai Pandan 'B', and Pengiran Setia Negara, Pekan Lama; Mukim Peramu including Peramu, Pekilong Muara, Bakut Pengiran Siraja Muda ' A', Bakut Pengiran Siraja Muda 'B', Bakut Berumput and Lurong Sikuna; Mukim Saba including Saba Tengah, Saba Ujong, Saba Laut, Saba Darat 'A' and Saba Darat 'B'. Mukim Sungai Kebun including Setia 'A', Sungai Siamas/Ujong Klinik, Setia 'B' Sungai Kebun, Bolkiah 'A' and Bolkiah 'B'.

People have lived in Kampong Ayer for over 1300 years. Antonio Pigafetta dubbed it the "Venice of the East" when the fleet of Ferdinand Magellan visited in 1521. The district is a culturally important part of Brunei that preserves the nation's river dwelling origins. According to geography professor Abdul Aziz of the Universiti Brunei Darussalam, this is the largest and most famous water settlement of Southeast Asia. "It was historically the very core of Brunei and one of the most important centres of trade in Borneo." In order to preserve Kampong Ayer as Brunei Darussalam's most valuable heritage, the Government through the District Office has provided it with numerous facilities including foot-bridges, concrete jetties, piped water, electricity supplies telephones, a school, mosques, clinics, a police station and a marine fire station. All of the six water village mukims (districts) are collectively known as the water village (Kampong Ayer) but are identified as separate mukims for administrative purposes.

Visitors can have a personal experience of this heritage by taking one of the many water taxis that ply daily between the water taxi jetty in front of the Yayasan Sultan Haji Hassanal Bolkiah in the centre of town and the water village itself.

TASEK LAMA RECREATIONAL PARK

It was the one of the oldest recreational park in Brunei Darussalam. This tasek lama recreational park was chosen become one the oldest recreational park in Brunei because this tasek lama has a natural resources that not build by people.

Task lama recreational park has a natural resources like natural waterfall and Lake that has a beautiful sources of it. This waterfall can be used by swimming in it,Drinking the water and so on. This water of the waterfall comes from natural a lake that is cause by heavy rainfall. Other than it, there ae a features of a beautiful garden of trees and flowers. This places ideal places for who likes to spend more time on relaxing, exercising and more activity can come to this tasek. Peoples who likes to jogging around , this place was the great places for jogging. Peoples also can spend time with their family by picnicking. In this places also be installed an 8 metre high wall for Those who interested in climbing , so that come to this place to climbed it.

Jerudong Park

Jerudong Park is an amusement park in Brunei. It is the largest and most expensive amusement park in South East Asia, built and funded by the Bruneian government for $1 billion.

It is notable that during its first few years of operation, Jerudong Park featured no admission fees and free rides. It is currently larger than phase 1 of Hong Kong Disneyland. The public only had to queue up for rides. However, recently the number of visitors and tourists has dropped significantly and the administration has started a onetime B$15 admission fee, and allride ticketing system. According to the park's website, many of its rides are for sale.

Currently, the theme park has reduced its footprint to Phase 1 and 2, the original Playground. It has introduced a revised system of ticketing called the ticket card system. The park is once again free entry to the general public, but guests have to buy ticket cards to be able to use the rides and attractions. These tickets come in $8 and $10 price range. The ticket cards have slots which can be punched using a single hole puncher - one punch equals one use of any ride or facility for one person. This system therefore gives the guest the choice to choose which ride he or she would want to use, and how many would be able to use the facility using the ticket card. An $8 ticket card has 4 slots and 1 free slot (effectively allowing one guest to use 5 rides/attractions - or 2 guests to use two rides with one extra). The $10 ticket card has 5slots plus 3 free slots (which means a guest can use 8 rides attractions and so on). The free entry has seen a marked increase in the number of people going to the park, as shown on weekends where one can observe a large group of families having picnics in the field, or long queues on the remaining rides and attractions.

Wasai Kendal

Wasai Kandal is located about 10 km from the city in Mukin kilanas, and is best known for its picturesque pools and waterfalls. It offers some delightful jungle walks only a few minutes from the heart of Bandar Seri Begawan. Very nice place and very save. Within a few minutes it is possible for one to get away from the urban bustle of Bandar Seri Begawan and stroll in a tranquil forest glade past waterfalls and pools. The walk is behind Kampong Kilanas, just 1.5 kilometres off Jalan Tutong, along a well-marked and well-maintained trail through secondary jungle, leading to four picnic spots where shelters and tables have been built.

The path starts as a rough track and it is just 10 minutes (630m) to the first picnic spot, where there is a small pond and a modest waterfall, benches and tables and a sign announcing 'Air Terjun Menyusop'.

The path is wide and well-cleared with bridges built over streams and handrails built in places. The path continues for another 10 minutes, following a stream and then winding up a small hill to Tasek Laboi, an unappetizing brown, swampy pond.

The path leads along a small valley on to Air Terjun Tinggi (literally 'high waterfall'), which is the highlight of the walk, and descends parallel to the cascade. At the bottom of the cascade, it climbs a short rise to the edge of a mud bank overlooking a tinkling waterfall that drops 10 metres into a cold, opaque pool. The path then turns left, skirting the edge of the bank. Location : Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Darussalam.

Teraja Water fall

The proposed Protected Area extension of Bukit Teraja is a relatively small piece of land (ca. 2500 ha) but would be of particular value because it has high biodiversity and great eco-tourism potential. It is a piece of fairly undisturbed forest that is accessible by road and has many hiking opportunities. The area holds various habitats: Mixed Dipterocarp hill forest, peat-swamps, ridges, rocks, waterfalls, rivers - therefore a diverse flora and fauna.

We have explored this area extensively and found it particularly diverse, with at least 11 waterfalls and many trekking opportunities. The paths to the Teraja and Belaluk waterfalls are well trodden but unmarked. Pushing on from these paths through the rivers reveals many more beautiful waterfalls. These river scrambles, climbing over rocks and swimming the many pools are great fun for the adventurous family.

Most ridges have a kind of hiking or animal trail providing connection towards Bkt Teraja and other areas.The Teraja River marks the end of the Labi Road about 10 kilometres beyond the end of the tarmac. A well-worn path leads upstream, criss-crossing the river over tree trunks, to a small waterfall in lush green forest. The waterfall is also the source of water supply for the Teraja longhouse at the beginning of the path. The path continues beyond the waterfall to the top of Bukit Teraja, though this last stretch is indistinct and a scramble in places.

Rampayoh Waterfalls

An easy walk of under two hours through jungle leads to the largest Rampayoh waterfall which descends four metres from a table-top of rock into a cool, deep pool. It is a 10-kilometre amble to the falls starting near the end of the sealed section of the Labi road signposted 'Waterfall 120 minutes'. A wide, well-used path cuts through a bamboo wood and emerges just above the Rampayoh River. The path goes upstream with small bridges over little tributaries, built and maintained by the Gurkhas. After a 45- minute walk, there is a small waterfall beside a Gurkha encampment from where the path remains wide, winding through beautiful open forest. Close to Rampayoh the path rises through primary jungle emerging into a Gurkha camp comprising shelters with tables and benches which are ideal for a picnic. The second waterfall is one minute's walk from the camp. One oath leads to a large pool below the waterfall while another stays at the same level skirting around the top of the falls.

A third waterfall is another two and a half hours' walk along a deteriorating path along the Rampayoh River and is only reachable with an overnight stay in the jungle. Prosaically called Landing Point 196, it is used by army helicopters for landing. The waterfall leads to a large deep pool which is suitable for swimming. The height of the falls, however is modest. The best time to visit Rampayoh is July when the track is in good condition. Camping enthusiasts may seek advice from the British Army or Gurkhas who regularly use the area for exercises. Notice is usually broadcast on BFBS or on Radio Brunei news.

Jalan Tasek Lama

Located just a few minutes' walk from the city center, this is a popular trekking trail for the local residents of Bandar Seri Begawan. There are well made walkaways through the small park which has benches and picnic spots as well as a waterfall and ponds with water lilies Taman Peranginan Tasek is a more extensive green zone with picnic areas, and peaceful walks to a small *waterfall*.The falls are nicest in the wet season,when the water is deeper.It's about 1 Km to the falls from the entrance gates by the carpark,countinue past the flowerbeds and picnic table then follow the stream.

Taman Tasek

Just a few minutes walk from the city centre, Tasek Lama Park offers a tranquil respite from Bandar Seri Begawan's bustle and exhaust fumes. Visitors can stroll at leisure on well-made walkways through the small park which has benches and picnic spots, as well as a waterfall and ponds with water lilies.

A road leading off to the right about halfway to the waterfall leads up to a lake and dam which has turquoise water and supplies parts of the municipality.

A feature of the park are the yellow flowers of the bladderwort which grows in ditches and other wet areas beside the footpaths. It is carnivorous, catching tiny swimming insects in its small leaves which are modified into tiny cups and imprison its prey with a movement-sensitive flap. The insects provide extra source of nitrogen and other nutrients. The park is a popular with the local residents and is an ideal place for jogging.

Tasek Merimbun Heritage Park

‘Tasek Merimbun (Translation: Merimbun Lake) Heritage Park’ is a wildlife sanctuary, a conservation spot for flora and fauna, a recreational center, and a venue for research and education. It is the first to be declared a national park in Brunei Darussalam. The 7,800-hectare park was also declared an ASEAN Heritage Park on 29 November 1984, marking a significant era in its history. With this recognition, the government earmarked funds in the 6th National Development Plan for developing facilities at Tasek Merimbun to establish a national park that would incorporate extensive forest areas adjacent to the lake. The Park encloses Brunei's largest lake, Tasek Merimbun, and a number of small rivers feeding into the lake.

Tasek Merimbun is part of a geological formation that was uplifted from a shallow sea about 7 million years ago. Home to many species of flora and fauna, it is a kind of low depression surrounded by swamps as opposed to being a typical lake. The water is black due to the presence of peat i.e. fermentation of plant vegetative materials that feed into the lake through the peat swamp. Tasek Merimbun was declared as Brunei's National Heritage Park in 1967 and later on declared as an ASEAN Heritage Park in 1984. This park is under the management of Brunei Museums Department.

Butterfly Garden (Taman Kulimambang)

Butterfly Garden, or ‘Taman Kulimambang’ in Brunei Malay, was opened early this month. The park is located inside Tasek Merimbun Heritage Park. According to Museums Officer Hj Hassan Hj Munab, the detailed and interactive learning experience provided at the Butterfly Park and Tasek Merimbun’s exhibition gives visitors a good means of information with regard to heritage and the ecosystem. The new butterfly park is located in the Tasek Merimbun Heritage Site in the district of Tutong. The park houses over 100 butterflies from over 30 different species. Visitors will be able to view butterflies in their natural state as they interact with the flora and fauna surrounding them.

The enclosure is 14 by 14 metres and 8 metres high. It holds 40 species of butterflies and 50 species of flora, the latter carefully chosen to cater to the butterflies' diet. It seems different butterfly species feed on different types of plants.

Tasek Merimbun is an hour’s drive from Bandar Seri Begawan. It is open from Sunday to Thursday from 9am to 5pm, Friday from 9am to 11.30am then 2pm to 5pm, and Saturday from 9.30am to 5pm. Admission is free. For more information, you may contact 4269179.

Peradayan Forest Recreation Park

Forest Resort with its unusual cave and rock formations, Perdayan Forest Recreation Park's 1,070-ha territory is also home to a variety of readily seen wildlife such as Borneo`s native Kijang (deer). The reserve encompasses the twin hills of Bukit Perdayan (Perdayan Hill) which rises to 410 meters (1,225 feet), and Bukit Patoi at 310 meters (950 feet)above the sea-level. The patch of level stone on Bukit Patoi's summit is used as a helipad, and cooled by a pleasant breeze, it's also a view deck from which to enjoy panoramic views of jungle, sea and the villages and fields of neighboring Sarawak. It takes about two hours to negotiate the 1.6 km winding trek to the park. Perdayan Forest Recreation Park is situated on the road to Labu, approximately 15 km from Bangartown.

Ulu Temburong National Park

Introduction

The easternmost part of Brunei is the Temburong District, which is separated from the capital and the three other Bruneian provinces by the Malaysian state of Sarawak. The Temburong District is rich in unspoiled natural heritage, including the Ulu Temburong National Park (formerly the Batu Apoi Forest Reserve). Here the magnificence of Borneo's lowland rainforests can be truly experienced. Botanically the area is possessed of stounding diversity, however the casual visitor in search of birds or mammals is likely to be disappointed by the apparent lack of fauna. In fact the forests teem with wildlife, but these creatures are invariably shy and are quick to avoid human contact.

Getting There

Ulu Temburong is only accessible by boat. From the capital of Bandar Seri Begawan water taxis take about one hour to ply the route to the main town of Bangar in Temburong District. This allows the visitor a glimpse of the mangrove forests which line the muddy delta of the Limbang River flowing out of Sarawak into Brunei Bay. With luck, Proboscis Monkeys may be sighted along this route, however these are more likely to be seen in early morning or late afternoon.

From Bangar, a 30 minute bus ride is needed to reach Batang Duri which is the base for Brunei's Outward Bound School and the embarkation point for Temuai longboats which carry visitors up the Temburong River. These craft are steered by Iban men and women who, with remarkable ability, manage to avoid sand bars, boulders and submerged logs. Beware though, when water levels are low passengers are expected to climb out of the craft and help push the boat to deeper water. After two hours passengers should have arrived safely, but not necessarily dry, at their accommodation in the National Park Headquarters near the confluence with Sungei Belalong.

Boardwalks and Suspension Bridges

From the National Park headquarters an extensive network of wooden boardwalks leads to the surrounding forests. It would be possible for the visitor to spend some days in Ulu Temburong without actually letting their feet touch the forest floor ! However, in places the wooden planking has lost the battle against termites, beetles and fungus so care must be taken. Thankfully the suspension bridges which criss-cross the rivers are in better condition

Canopy Walkway

A birds-eye view of the surrounding forests can be had from the not-to-be-missed Canopy Walkway. This steel structure rises some 50 metres from the forest floor to the level of the highest trees, and from here can be seen tiger orchids and other epiphytes clinging to the branches, as well as Bukit Belalong (Bukit=Hill) in the distance. The observant may even glimpse snakes in the treetops, such as the strikingly coloured Wagler's Pit Viper.

Denizens of the Rainforest

The Wagler's Pit Viper is also called the Temple Viper (in some parts of S.E. Asia they bring good luck to Buddhist temples). The picture at left is of a juvenile, with it's distinctive yellow and pale green colour and coloured crossbars. The 'pits' or heat-sensitive organs which lie between the eye and the nostril are used to detect prey. This is a venomous species, with powerful haemotoxins, however bites are rarely fatal. Lizards are perhaps easier to find than snakes, and with luck one may get glimpses of species with such unlikely sounding names as the Five-lined Flying Lizard Draco quinquefasciatus and Peter's Bent-toed GeckoGonydactylus consobrinus.

It is worth searching quietly for Ulu Temburong's shy amphibians, both by day and by night. These include the common Kuhl's Creek Frog Limnonectes kuhli, the Smooth Guardian Frog Rana palavanensis easily identified by the black chevron marking on it's back, the Painted Tree Frog Nyctixalus pictus which lays it's eggs in tree holes, and the striking Wallace's Flying FrogRhacophorus nigropalmatus which has the ability to glide from tree to tree using its webbed fingers and toes. The Black Spotted Rock Frog Staurois natator (right) is a handsome species which can be found in the water-filled gullies or small waterfalls. The frog in the photograph was just two inches in length.

Insects - essential to Rainforest ecology

By some estimates there may be as many as 400 species of butterfly in the Ulu Temburong National Park, however many of these are rare and occur in areas not accessible to the casual visitor. Arguably the most beautiful butterfly in the world is the Rajah Brooke's Birdwing (named after the 'White Rajah' James Brooke who ruled Sarawak as his private kingdom in the colonial era.) With it's jet black wing colour and emerald green banding the males of this most glorious of species can be found searching for salt and other minerals near human habitation - in particular it favours sewage outfalls !

Another butterfly species of note is the Tree Nymph Idea stolli. This white and black spotted species glides on it's gossamer wings around sunlit areas, seeming to float in the air with no effort at all. Other insects to look for include forest centipedes, sometimes found guarding their eggs, the Giant Forest Ant Campanotus gigas which, at one inch long, looks formidable but will not bite humans, and Lantern Bugs with their bizarre elongated heads. Take some time to observe the activities of termites; these social insects quickly break down dead plant or tree matter (or wooden boardwalks !) and return the nutrients to the soil for absorption by the next generation of plants and trees.

Fauna

Faunal species includes mammals, reptiles, butterflies and insects and birds.The most popular, totally arboreal faunal species, is Müller's Bornean gibbon which is grey-brown in colour and is without tail. Its habitat is mostly the forest canopy and occasionally seen at mid-canopy level.[6] Squirrels, in particular the tiny Plain Pygmy Squirrel near human habitations, and Black Spotted Rock Frog (Staurois natator) are also reported from the park. Orchids and snakes, particularly the coloured Wagler's Pit viper, reside on tree tops.Bushy-crested Hornbill (Anorrhinus), Rhinoceros Hornbill (Buceros rhinoceros), Broadbills, Black-and-yellow Broadbill (Eurylaimus ochromalus), and Swiftlets are notable birds in the park. Four hundred species of butterfly and many species are rare species and the most famous is the Rajah Brooke's Birdwing which is given the name "White Rajah" honouring James Brooke. The area was under his private authority as part of Sarawak during the colonial era; the male species have jet black wing colour and emerald green banding. Another variety of butterfly is the Tree Nymph Idea stolli, which is a white and black spotted species. Other species of insects found are centipedes, Giant Forest Ant Campanotus gigas,Lantern Bugs and termites.

Birds and Mammals

Higher vertebrates are hard to spot in these forests. The Bushy Crested Hornbill Anorrhinus galeritus may sometimes be seen near the accommodation but other dramatic species, such as the Rhinoceros Hornbill Buceros rhinoceros are more likely to be heard flying overhead than actually be seen. Broadbills, such as the Black-and-yellow Broadbill Eurylaimus ochromalus, may be found foraging for food, and along the rivers fast-flying Swiftlets will be seen hunting for insects. The 'primate king' of Borneo, the Bornean Orang Utan, is not found in Ulu Temburong. The king in Ulu Temburong is the Bornean Gibbon Hylobates muelleriwhose loud call may be heard ringing from the trees early each morning. This grey-brown, tail-less species is completely arboreal, living in the forest canopy and only occasionally descending to mid-canopy. Squirrels, however, will be seen at ground level, including the tiny Plain Pygmy Squirrel Exilisciurus exilis which can be found near human habitation.

Botanical Treasure Trove

For the botanist, the Ulu Temburong National Park contains an abundance of species for study. As is common in tropical lowland forests, the canopy is dominated by giants of the Shorea,Dryobalanops and Dipterocarpus genera. At ground level the forest floor is a wealth of gingers, begonias, gesneriads and aroids, and blooms of the Ixora genus are easily found. Rattan species are numerous - these often take advantage of the bright sunlight reaching the forest floor through breaks in the canopy.

Palms, ferns, mosses and lichens are to be found along the river's edge and in the quiet rocky gullies. Many of these species may be fully submerged when the rivers are swollen by flash floods, but somehow they manage to cling to the rocky substrate and survive.

Fruiting figs, an essential food source for many mammals and birds in the rainforest ecosystem, are common, but keep an eye out for geocarpic figs, whose fruits grow from ground shoots rather than from the trunks and branches.

One does not have to be a botanist to appreciate the diversity of Ulu Temburong's flora - all that is needed is e keen eye, and an appreciation of the wonderful forms and structures which have evolved over many millennia in these wonderful forests.

Accommodation is available at the Ulu Temburong National Park Headquarters. Booking of accommodation is best made through travel agents in the capital, Bandar Seri Begawan. Some of these agents can be found online. A package booking through an agent should also cover boat and road transfers.

Scientific groups, natural history societies and school groups can stay at the Kuala Belalong Field Studies Centre, just one kilometre upriver from the park headquarters. Bookings should be made through : The Coordinator, Kuala Belalong Field Studies Centre, Department of Biology, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Gadong 3186, Negara Brunei Darussalam.

LuaganLalakRecreationalPark

Luagan Lalak Recreational Park is located along the road to Labi in Brunei. It coves an area of 270 hectares and is within the Labi Hills Forest Reserve. The distinctive feature of Luagan Lalak Recreational Park is the alluvial freshwater swamp called empran. During the wet season, it fills up with water to form a lake. In the dry season thewater dries up and the lake is filled with sedges.)

Name Luagan Lalak Recreational Park

Location Labi, Belait District

How to get here Drive all the way to Sungai Liang and then take the left turn towards Labi and you are on the Labi Road. The park is 25km up Labi Road.

Admission Free

Facilities 1. Huts 2. BBQ pits 3. Public toilets 4. Wooden walkway

Sungai Liang Forest Recreational Park

The Sungai Liang Forest Recreational Park is an immense arboretum reserve. However, a part of the virgin jungle has been turned into a park with well marked nature trails. There are cool lakes where swimming is allowed. A canopy walkway in the treetops allows for a different perspective of this largely mixed Dipterocarp jungle. The mammals found here include the plantain squirrel, pigtailed macaque, the Borneo gibbon, round leaf horseshoe bats and the flying lemur. The park covers about 14 hectares of largely undistrubed forest and first started life as a large arborerum reserve gazetted as far back as 1948. It was in 1970 before the place became a small park The Sungai Liang Park is a little part of the Andulau Forest Reserve. According to the Forestry Department, the Andulau Forest Reserve is a Mixed Dipterocarp Forest. This type is the most dominant forest type in the hill forest of Brunei, composing at least 41% of all forest in the country. It is also the most uniform but the most complex forest type.

Bukit Shahbandar Recreation Park

Bukit Shahbandar Recreation Park is one of the most popular recreational parks in Brunei Darussalam which covers an area of 234 hectares and has a number of beautiful spots worth visiting. Based about 15 kilometres from the heart of Bandar Seri Begawan, it records the highest number of visitors compared to other recreational parks in Brunei Darussalam.

Among the factor contributing to this is its location that is easily accessible which is along the Muara-Tutong highway. It is also near to the Brunei’s most grand accommodation, The Empire Hotel & Country Club in Jerudong.

This park has nine hills and it is considered as a significant achievement if one managed to climb all of them. However, one hill is enough for a newbie as the route and distance is equivalent to a 15-minute walk.

Bukit Shahbandar is accessorised with good public facilities where among others are a convenient huge parking bay that can cater a huge number of vehicles, a number of stalls for thirst quenchers and restrooms.

This park is also known as a good place for family’s leisure activities. There are a number of shelters provided to have a barbeque, a hall to conduct outdoor activities, a fishing pond and several mini educational games such as the wooden maze.

An interesting feature of the park is the observation tower at the summit of the hill, from which one can savour the panoramic view of the South China Sea and coastline to the north, Bandar Seri Begawan and suburbs to the Southwest, Jerudong Park to the west, and wide tracts of green land elsewhere.

This park was also the venue for one of the Southeast Asian Games (SEA Games) event in 1999 and the first Brunei Marathon in 2005. This park is also frequently chosen as a venue for brisk walk activities conducted by both the public and private sectors.

This park is one of the recreational parks that is developed by the Forestry Department of the Ministry of Industry and Primary Resources.

Pulau selirong

A 45 minutes boat-ride from Muara lies Pulau Selirong (Selirong Island), which is a 2,566 hectares mangrove-covered island. There is a 2 kilometres of wooden walkways offering close-up views of the mangroves and wildlife. There is also an observation tower and the island has toilet facilities and rest huts.

For years, this jewel of nature has served as a nature preserve park dedicated to protect its rich forest heritage and the unique flora and fauna that thrive on the island. Quite strangely, Brunei's wealth of oil and natural gas has saved the country from depending on cultivating in the forest areas and thus it can now boast of virtually untouched forests. That is certainly evident when the lush mangroves that reach up to 40 meters into the sky greet the eyes. In fact, when compared to the ordinary mangroves growing in other places, they are nearly twice as tall and thick.

Of course, when traveling to Pulau Selirong, one can't miss out on the opportunity to explore the wonderful wildlife roaming around the towering mangroves. All one needs to bring is some gear, food, and more important, lots of patience. Probably the most common sight is the so-called "colugo," or the flying lemurs that are usually hanging upside-down on tree branches. It is ironic, however, that, despite their name, they can't actually fly (they instead glide using the extra skin between their limbs), and are not even real lemurs for that matter.

One can also catch a glimpse of the flights of exotic birds, mammals, and snakes. The forest comes alive with a cacophony of various sounds, ranging from the calls of the cicadas to the cries of the jumping prawns. Despite these, the highlight to any visit to the island is the rare Orang Belanda, better known as the proboscis monkey. Seen almost exclusively in the vicinity of Borneo, it can be easily distinguished because of its large protruding nose from whence it got its name.

Muara Beach

Less than 27km from Bandar Seri Begawan’s town centre, Muara Beach’s long, quiet esplanade invites leisurely strolling and is an ideal destination for a family outing. Amenities here include a well-equipped picnic area, a children’s playground, changing and toilet facilities, as well as weekend food and drink stalls.

Meragang Beach

Near the Jalan Meragang junction off the highway to Muara lies Meragang Beach — sometimes called Crocodile Beach. Despite the name, you’ll encounter no such creature along this peaceful, unspoilt stretch of sand — only a warm sea breeze, a brilliant sunset or a double rainbow.

Serasa Beach

A mere 10-minute drive from Muara, lively Serasa Beach is a haven for water sports enthusiasts. The Serasa Watersports Complex provides comprehensive facilities for sporting and recreational activities that are up to international competition level standards, including jet skiing, kayaking, windsurfing, regatta sailing, power boat racing, aqua sports training and water skiing.

Pantai Seri Kenangan Beach

Literally the unforgettable beach, this scenic locale is a popular recreation spot located at Kuala Tutong. Here, the beauty of the beach is enhanced by a narrow strip of land with the South China Sea on one side and the Tutong River on the other. The beach is a five minute drive from Tutong town and is a lovely spot for picnics, fishing and swimming.

Lumut Beach

For those who prefer a day of sun and sand while in Belait, Lumut Beach beckons. Located about 100km from Seria’s town centre, it offers complete facilities for picnicking, jogging and family outings. Added features here are the huts and shelters especially designed for visitor relaxation.

Pagon

Bukit Pagon is the highest mountain in Brunei. It is situated on the border with Sarawak, Malaysia on the island of Borneo. Bukit Pagon is located in the Temburong District of Brunei. ,Bukit Pagon (1850m) is the highest peak in Brunei. Bukit Pagon (Bukit Pagon) is a peak (class T - Hypsographic) in (Brunei (general)), Brunei (Asia) with the region font code of Americas/Western Europe.Its coordinates are 4°18'0" N and 115°19'1" E in DMS (Degrees Minutes Seconds) or 4.3 and 115.317 (in decimal degrees). Its UTM position is LK17 and its Joint Operation Graphics reference is NB50-13.Current local time is 15:27; the sun rises at 08:06 and sets at 20:13 local time (Asia/Brunei UTC/GMT+8). The standard time zone for Bukit Pagon is UTC/GMT+8In 2014 DST starts on - and ends on -.A Peak is a pointed elevation atop a mountain, ridge, or other hypsographic feature. In Malay, the word "bukit" means mountain. Low's Pitcher-Plant was named after Hugh Low, a British naturalist who first found the species on Mount Kinabalu (Sabah, Malaysia).

Retak

Butik Retak is Brunei's second highest mountain, not far from Bukit Pagon in Temburong. Bukit Retak (Bukit Retak) is a peak (class T - Hypsographic) in (Brunei (general)), Brunei (Asia) with the region font code of Africa/Middle East.Its coordinates are 4°21'0" N and 115°18'0" E in DMS (Degrees Minutes Seconds) or 4.35 and 115.3 (in decimal degrees). Its UTM position is LK18 and its Joint Operation Graphics reference is NB50-13.Current local time is 15:34; the sun rises at 08:06 and sets at 20:13 local time (Asia/Brunei UTC/GMT+8). The standard time zone for Bukit Retak is UTC/GMT+8In 2014 DST starts on - and ends on -.A Peak is a pointed elevation atop a mountain, ridge, or other hypsographic feature.

Ulu Tutong

Bukit Ulu Tutong is a peak and is located in Malaysia. The estimate terrain elevation above seal level is 271 metres. Variant forms of spelling for Bukit Ulu Tutong or in other languages: Gunong Ulu Tutong, Bukit Ulu Tutong, Bukit Ulu Tutong, Gunong Ulu Tutong. Bukit Ulu Tutong Peak is drawn on the Nationala Geospatial Agency (NGA) Map. Bukit Ulu Tutong is located in the Brunei Area of the Country of Brunei. The Peak is located at the latitude and longitude coordinates of 4.266667 and 114.816667.

Lesung

Bukit Lesung is located in Malaysia on Borneo. Bukit Lesung's latitude is 2° 46' 59.988" North, and longitude is 112° 46' 59.988" East degrees in the Asia/Kuching time zone. Several tour operators offer holidays and tours to or near to Bukit Lesung.

Alternative name(s) are: Bukit Lesong,Bukit Lesung,Bukit Lusong,Table Hill.

Name Bukit Lesung
Latitude 2° 46' 59.988" North
Latitude, dec. 2.783330
Longitude 112° 46' 59.988" East
Longitude, dec. 112.783330
Timezone Asia / Kuching
Type T mountain, hill, rock tower
State, Province Sarawak
Country Malaysia
GTOPO30 223 m
Batu Patam

A 45 minutes boat-ride from Muara lies Pulau Selirong (Selirong Island), which is a 2,566 hectares mangrove-covered island. There is a 2 kilometres of wooden walkways offering close-up views of the mangroves and wildlife. There is also an observation tower and the island has toilet facilities and rest huts.

Latitude: 4°4'0.01"

Longitude: 114°43'59.99"

Batu Bujang Pahang

Bukit Batu Bujang Pahang is located at berambang Island, Kampong Menunggol, Mukim Kota Batu. It is only 7 minutes drive from the City to the jetty, 3 minutes ride Across the river, and another 7 minutes Using the local bus ride. The peak is sandstone, Actually the peak is ideal for sport climbing and abseiling technical. From the ground has height about 30 meters. Bukit Batu Bujang Pahang is a local name of the peak. As far as I know, the peak is the Highest Point in Brunei Darussalam. Lies in Brambangan Island, The Biggest island of Brunei Darussalam, cloce to the Malaysian border. To reach the peak from the City of Bandar Seri Bagawan, you have to take water taxi to the island. After that's-you-can take a taxi or by foot about 45 minutes. Batu Bujang Pahang is historical sites such as an abandoned coal mine, Batu Bekajang Cave and Batu Betingkat. Bukit Batu Bujang Pahang attractiveness to tourists, whether they visited, the delegation from the departments, groups of schools, private groups and more climbers.

SELIRONG ISLAND

You can take a boat which leaves early, at around 5.45am, as soon as the boatman can navigate in the pre-dawn light. Speed down the Brunei River and across the calm water of inner Brunei Bay as the sun begins to rise, reaching Selirong Island early, when the natural habitants are active and you are most likely to encounter the amazing array of wildlife living amongst its tangle of mangroves, vines, palms and trees.

Selirong Forest Recreation Park is a preserved area solely for outdoor recreation, research and nature education. This mangrove wonderland is a breeding ground for the marine life that populates Brunei Bay. It is also a bird-watchers delight. With pristine mangrove forests, the chances of sighting wildlife are good; especially the proboscis monkey which is endemic to the island of Borneo. At certain times of the year, migratory birds alight here to make this their nesting ground and with other denizens of the mangrove forest, make this island, a naturalist's dream.

Try to walk quietly along the 2 km of elevated timber boardwalks. Stop to hear and watch the parade of unique mammals, resident and migratory birds, bats, reptiles, fish, crustaceans, and of course proboscis monkeys. There is also a chance that you will see a green turtle or salt water crocodile in the mangrove channels.

A guide will highlight features of the island's unique eco-system, and advise where and what to look for as you move along the waterway channels and elevated boardwalks.

Tanjong Pelumpong

Tanjong Pelumpong or the Pelumpong Spit in English is the easternmost point in the Brunei-Muara district of Brunei. Despite its name, it is now an island due to the artificially constructed 50m-wide, 10m-deep Muara cut, which separated the spit from the mainland to provide access to Muara Port.

Location and Geography : Tanjong Pelumpong is located between the Brunei Bay to the south and the South China Sea to the north. Administratively, it is part of Mukim Serasa of the Brunei-Muara district of Brunei and is separated from the mainland to the west by the 50m-wide, 10m-deep Muara cut. This channel is protected at each side by breakwaters which extend seawards towards the northeast.The northern coast of Tanjong Pelumpong consists of the white sandy beach similar to that of Muara Beach. This is because it was a continuation of the latter until the Muara Cut divided it into two. There is however, a series of beach protection structures constructed here to prevent soil erosion. The island is forested with pine trees.The island is inhabited and is only accessible by boat.

History : The history of Tanjong Pelumpong is closely related to the history of Brooketon and Muara. The whole area, including Tanjong Pelumpong, was leased to Charles Brooke, the White Rajah of Sarawak by 1889.Politically too, even though he only had economic rights, Brooke became the de facto ruler of the area. It was not until 1921 that Muara was "returned" to Brunei.The Japanese occupied Brunei during Second World War, and Tanjong Pelumpong was one of the landing location of the Australian forces during the Second World War which liberated Brunei from Japanese rule.The Muara Cut was initiated in the 1960s to provide access to Muara Port. This was done by excavating and then dredging a 10m channel at the narrowest point of Tanjong Pelumpong which converted Tanjong Pelumpong from a spit to an island.A minke whale was beached on the island in 2003.

Muara cut deepening : There are plans to further deepen the Muara cut to a depth of 16m in order to facilitate the expansion of Muara Port to Pulau Muara Besar. The dredged sand will be used for land reclamation on Pulau Muara Besar for the proposed port construction and extension.

Activities : Tanjong Pelumpong and the Muara cut are used by the general public for recreational activities. The Muara cut is a popular spot for anglers and fishermen. The island itself has numerous pristine beaches and is a popular spot for picnicking.There are a number of fish farms in the sheltered area of the Brunei Bay between Tanjong Pelumpong (island) and Pulau Muara BesarDue to its remoteness, the island is also used for other illicit activities such as smuggling.

Jong Batu

Jong Batu is a rock outcrop located in the Brunei River. It is shaped such that when viewed from the shores of the Brunei River, it resembles a sinking ship, with the bow sticking out of the water. In Brunei folklore, the legend of Nakhoda Manis (literally the "Captain Manis" in Malay) tells of how an unfilial son was turned to the rock outcropping known as Jong Batu.

Description : Jong Batu is located in the Brunei River to the east of the Istana Nurul Iman. Administratively, it is part of the Lumapas mukim of the Brunei-Muara district. The rock outcropping is about 20m long and 15m wide at its widest point and is uninhabited. A few shrubs dot the island. It takes approximately 15 minutes to travel to it by boat from Kampong Ayer.A light buoy was constructed near the rock outcropping to warn mariners about the island. The island is a popular spot for sightseeing, especially from the river cruises that operate on the Brunei River.

Legend : In some versions of the story as told in Brunei, Dang Ambon was a rich widow and her son, Nakhoda Manis, inherited wealth from his deceased father. In other versions, they were both poor. They lived in Kampong Ayer.Nakhoda Manis left Kampong Ayer to seek his fortune in the city of Sulu. After many years, he achieved success and wealth there and married a pretty noblewoman and became owner of a huge ship. The version of the legend where they were rich had his mother sharing her wealth with poor people until one day she found herself poor like them. In any case, she longed for her son.Dang Ambon was overjoyed to hear that her son’s ship was going to anchor in the Brunei River and Nakhoda Manis was also looking forward to reuniting with his mother. When he arrived at the Brunei River, Dang Ambon paddled a small boat out towards his larger vessel and shouted that she missed him. He was very happy upon hearing his mother’s voice and looked forward to introducing her to his wife. However, before he could say anything to his wife, she was disgusted with the poor old woman and demanded her to be chased away. Nakhoda Manis was forced to turn his back on his mother and ordered his crew to push her small boat away. Other versions of the tale had them throwing her overboard. Dang Ambon was heartbroken and she cursed her son, whereupon a storm came and capsized the ship.After the storm, there was a huge rock in the river where Nakhoda Manis had anchored his vessel, which sank in the storm. The rock is known today as "Jong Batu". Similar stories about the ships of unfilial sons turning into stone are also told in Tutong which is a different part of Brunei, the Batu Caves of Selangor in Malaysia, the Philippines and Padang, Sumatra, Indonesia.

Borneo

Borneo is the third-largest island in the world and the largest island of Asia. At the geographic centre of Maritime Southeast Asia, in relation to major Indonesian islands, it is located north of Java, west of Sulawesi, and east of Sumatra.The island is divided among three countries: Brunei and Malaysia on the north, and Indonesia to the south. Approximately 73% of the island is Indonesian territory. In the north, the Malaysian states of Sabah and Sarawak, along with the federal territory of Labuan, make up about 26% of the island. The sovereign state of Brunei, located on the north coast, comprises about 1% of Borneo's land area. Borneo is home to one of the oldest rainforests in the world.

Geography : Borneo is surrounded by the South China Sea to the north and northwest, the Sulu Sea to the northeast, the Celebes Sea and the Makassar Strait to the east, and the Java Sea and Karimata Strait to the south. To the west of Borneo are the Malay Peninsula and Sumatra. To the south and east are islands of Indonesia: Java and Sulawesi, respectively. To the northeast are the Philippines.With an area of 743,330 square kilometres (287,000 sq mi), it is the third-largest island in the world, and is the largest island of Asia (the largest continent). Its highest point is Mount Kinabalu in Sabah, Malaysia, with an elevation of 4,095 m (13,435 ft).The largest river system is the Kapuas in West Kalimantan, with a length of 1,143 km (710 mi). Other major rivers include the Mahakam in East Kalimantan (980 km long (610 mi)), the Barito in South Kalimantan (880 km long (550 mi)), and Rajang in Sarawak (562.5 km (349.5 mi)).Borneo has significant cave systems. Clearwater Cave, for example, has one of the world's longest underground rivers. Deer Cave is home to over three million bats, with guano accumulated to over 100 metres (330 ft) deep.Before sea levels rose at the end of the last Ice Age, Borneo was part of the mainland of Asia, forming, with Java and Sumatra, the upland regions of a peninsula that extended east from present day Indochina. The South China Sea and Gulf of Thailand now submerge the former low-lying areas of the peninsula. Deeper waters separating Borneo from neighboring Sulawesi prevented a land connection to that island, creating the divide between Asian and Australia-New Guinea biological regions, known as Wallace's Line.

Ecology : True-color satellite image of the island of Borneo on 14 May 2012, as taken by the Terra satellite The Borneo rainforest is 130 million years old, making it one of the oldest rainforests in the world. There are about 15,000 species of flowering plants with 3,000 species of trees (267 species are dipterocarps), 221 species of terrestrial mammals and 420 species of resident birds in Borneo. There are about 440 freshwater fish species in Borneo (about the same as Sumatra and Java combined).It is the centre of the evolution and distribution of many endemic species of plants and animals. The Borneo rainforest is one of the few remaining natural habitats for the endangered Bornean orangutan. It is an important refuge for many endemic forest species, including the Asian elephant, the Sumatran rhinoceros, the Bornean clouded leopard, the Hose's civet and the dayak fruit bat.In 2010 the World Wide Fund for Nature stated that 123 species have been discovered in Borneo since the "Heart of Borneo" agreement was signed in 2007.The WWFN has classified the island into seven distinct eco regions. Most are lowland regions:

• Borneo lowland rain forests cover most of the island, with an area of 427,500 square kilometres (165,100 sq mi);

• Borneo peat swamp forests;

• Kerangas or Sundaland heath forests;

• Southwest Borneo freshwater swamp forests; and

• Sunda Shelf mangroves.

• The Borneo montane rain forests lie in the central highlands of the island, above the 1,000 metres (3,300 ft) elevation. The highest elevations of Mount Kinabalu are home to the Kinabalu mountain alpine meadow, an alpine shrubland notable for its numerous endemic species, including many orchids.The island historically had extensive rainforest cover, but the area was reduced due to heavy logging for the Malaysian and Indonesian plywood industry. Half of the annual global tropical timber acquisition comes from Borneo. Palm oil plantations have been widely developed and are rapidly encroaching on the last remnants of primary rainforest. Forest fires of 1997 to 1998, started by the locals to clear the forests for crops and kept going by an exceptionally dry El Niño season during that period, further reduced the rainforest. During the great fire, hotspots could be seen on satellite images; the resulting haze spread and affected the surrounding countries of Brunei, Malaysia, Indonesia and Singapore.In 2010 Sarawak announced a plan for energy production, the Sarawak Corridor of Renewable Energy, to try to establish sustainability.

Lumut Lunting

Places in our country really have their own histories. This time I want to share the root a little about a place called Moss Lunting. It is located between Pulau Sibungur and Pulau Berambang in muara Sungai Brunei. Moss Lunting is also close to the island of Pilong-Pilongan. the existence of Lumut Lunting have mentioned in Poem Awang Semaun and it categorized as oral literature. According to its history, in the reign of Awang Alak Betatar there was an persabungan chicken between Betara Majaphit namely Raden Angsuka God and the brother of Awang Alak Betatar, Awang Semaun. The Persabungan between chicken Awang Semaun named Mutiara and poultry Majapahit Empire named Romance. In the persabungan, Asmara has lost 29 Betara Majapahit Empire has wrath. Betara Majapahit was cursing Pearls, chicken Awang Semaun. Mutiara airport run later became and falling to the Brunei River and called Lumut Lunting as we can see. ). Mutiara who tried to give chase, fell into the river cursed by the King of Majapahit. He too turned into a rock and became an island (Lumut Lunting). It has been said among the elders in Kampong Ayer dwellers that Lumut Lunting will never be under water no matter how high the water level rises. If it does, then that signals a bad omen such as the death of a king or the occurrence of an untoward incident.

Pulau Pilong-Piolongan

There are two islands on Brunei Bay which are more interesting than all the others. One is called Pulau Pilong-Piolongan and the other very much smaller, more like a raised sandbank called Lumut Lunting. Lumut Lunting is situated in between Pulau Sibungur and Pulau Berambang and is located at the mouth of the Brunei River whereas Pulau Pilong-Pilongan is out in the sea nearer to Muara. Both islands - Lumut Lunting and Pulau Pilong-Pilongan have been associated with an old legend that stretched back in time to more than 500 years ago. The origin of both islands have been chronicled in the Syair Awang Semaun, which is equivalent to the local folklores or in English known as the oral tradition of Awang Semaun’s epic poems. The story was said to have taken place in the early days of the first sultanate of Awang Alak Betatar around the 14th century. In those days, Brunei Darussalam was still a vassal state of the Majapahit Empire. Awang Alak Betatar was the first ruler of the new Brunei Sultanate and as a vassal state, Brunei pays an annual tribute to the King of Majapahit. The tribute was made up of 40 ships laden with camphor to be paid to the Majapahit Empire from Brunei. Brunei’s camphor was considered to be among the best in the region then. Though some legends talk about a much smaller amount of 40 kati (roughly equal to about 24 kilograms). During that time, a rooster owned by Awang Senuai, a nephew of Awang Alak Betatar was known for its ability to win all the cockfights that it competed against. A cockfight is of course a fight between two specially trained and conditioned roosters with spectators betting on the outcome of the fight. Most fights end up with the death of one or both roosters. This came to the attention of Raden Angsuka Dewa who also owned another rooster named Asmara which is said to be equal to Mutiara. Asmara was well taken care of by his owner – eating from a golden plate that was hung high and given a special coop. Asmara was said to be strong, smart and possessed a special power. When he crowed upon entering Brunei, the local cocks were so terrified that they did not crow for several days. The King of Majapahit dictated that should he lose he will give the 40 ships laden with goods to Brunei; but should he win, he will gain more territories of Brunei which it owns and controls then. Another version talked about should Brunei lose, it will continue to be a vassal state of Majapahit. Both Asmara and Mutiara were both meticulously trained for the cockfight in front of the Sultan’s Palace. On the day of the fight, many people came to watch it. The fight commenced with the roosters pouncing, pecking, attacking and kicking each other cheered on by the excited spectators. Suddenly Asmara flew out of the ring followed by Mutiara. Asmara had been stabbed during the fight and was seriously injured. Asmara fled out of sight and succumbing to his wound fell down into the sea turning into a rock becoming an island (Pulau Pilong-PilonganThis tale chronicled the earlier days of the current Sultanate. According to historical sources, the reign of Awang Alak Betatar who eventually became Sultan Muhammad, the first Sultan was from 1393 AD. If this tale is true, then it must have occurred around that period. Before Sultan Muhammad, not much is known about the previous Brunei rulers even though in the Chinese annals, Brunei had contact with China as early as the 5th Century. Most likely this tale is a symbolism of what happened in those days. There could have been a struggle between the new rulers of Brunei and Majapahit. There could have been an actual battle, or at least a struggle of some sort by the new rulers trying to overthrow the yoke of the oppressing powers of the Majapahit. As by the time of Sultan Abdul Majid, who is the immediate descendant after Sultan Muhammad, whose tomb is found in China, Brunei had already turned its allegiance back to the Chinese Empire. The cockfight tale signifies the beginning of the ‘new’ Brunei Empire and it marked the existence of the country we lived in now.

Berambang Island

Pulau Berambang is Brunei's largest riverine island. Situated less than a kilometre from the banks of Pintu Malim, this island is easily accessible by boat, the fare 50 cts one way. The eastern banks of this island is Sungai Menunggul, a waterway border shared by Limbang, Malaysia and Brunei. Berambang Island is lightly populated. The only modern housing is Kampong Bolkiah B, houses built on the mud flats fringing the northern shore of the island. Jungle and mangrove covered most of the island. Through the Wild Life Protection Act, 1978 revised 1984, authorities have identified the mangrove forests on Berambang for the protection and conservation wildlife sanctuaries.It even feels like a different country, as motorcycles and bicycles are predominant here, and not cars! A daytrip promises idyllic walks along countryside roads, a hill trek which presents you with sweeping vistas, historic disused coal mines, dramatic rock formations – with the legendary stories, and a showcase of Brunei’s hardy kerangas forests. The highlight of course, the summit along the hill trek! Upon descending, head for a fishing village a few minutes away, on the banks of a river channel which is also the border with Malaysia.

Louis Mini

Louis mini zoo is located at Tutong district.A privately owned zoo with a variety of animals and birds such as camels, donkeys, snakes, lots of monitor lizards, chimpanzees, porcupines, owls, ostriches, peacocks and lots more. The zoo is situated along Jalan Tutong, about half a mile from the Lamunin turn-off and just before you hit Tutong town. Entrance fees are $4 per adult and half price for children. Rather a depressing place though. visit the zoo located at KM 29, Jalan Tutong or you may contact tel 4429262/4429272/4440793 open daily from 8.30 am to 5.30pm

Address:

No.6, Bangunan Hasbullah I, Jalan Gadong,Bandar Seri Begawan 1926

Brunei

6732-429-262

Taman Batang Duri

Batang Duri is an Iban longhouse on the Temburong River, about 40km southeast of BSB. From here take a boat to the Kuala Belalong Field Studies Centre, which researches tropical rainforest species. The forest around here is rich in flora and fauna - there are walking trails and limited accommodation. There is also a zoo, Taman Batang Duri, This is a landscaped park with a mini zoo that houses civets, monkeys, otters, birds, honey bears, mongoose and crocodiles.

Proboscis Monkeys

Everyone who has the opportunity to see a Proboscis monkey (Nasalis larvatus) is struck by its giant nose. But there is a second feature which is very typical for Proboscis monkeys and their relatives, the so called Leaf-monkeys - it's their large belly. Indicated by the name of that group of apes, they almost exclusively feed on leaves - and leaves are not easy to digest. Moreover leaves are not very rich in energy-content. So Proboscis monkeys have to eat a lot of leaves and spend most of their time on feeding. In order to obtain enough energy from their meagre nourishment, Proboscis monkeys have got a complicated stomach divided into several parts. Their stomach is quite similar to that of ruminants, which have to face the same problems. Adult Proboscis monkeys are large animals. Males reach a length of about 70 cm and a weight up to 24 kg. Females are significantly smaller, reaching lengths of 60 cm and weights of just 12 kg. The tails of Proboscis monkeys are about as long as their bodies. Their fur is brick-red, the front and the cheeks are of brighter colour and the arms and legs are more greyish. The most obvious feature of Proboscis monkeys is the male's extremely long nose, shaped like a cucumber. Noses of females and young are not small either but don't reach the sizes of the noses of males by far.

Pigtail macaque

In their native country, pigtail macaques are sometimes trained to pick coconuts.Langurs and orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) are rarely seen, while the pigtail macaque is reportedly found in several parts of the park.The photoreceptor topography of the pigtail macaque is qualitatively similar to that of other macaques and to humans.

Adult weight : 7.913 kg (17.4086 lbs)

Maximum longevity : 38 years

Female maturity :1125 days

Male maturity : 1095 days

Gestation : 172 days

Weaning : 324 days

Litter size : 1

Litters per year : 1

Interval between litters : 405 days

Weight at birth : 0.463 kg (1.0186 lbs)

Weight at weaning : 1.417 kg (3.1174 lbs)

Sun Bears

Sun bear (Helarctos malayanus) stands approximately 1.2 m in length. It is the smallest member of the bear family, and therefore often called dog bear and probably the most aggresive of the bear family, and will attack without provocation. Relatively, they have the largest canines of all the bear species. They suffer from habitat loss and poaching. According to this article in a Bangkok newspaper, a new carnivorous species resembling the Malayan Sun bear has been discovered.

The discovered fossil has been named Mae-mohcyon potisati Pigne and "strangely, the species can be compared with the Malayan sun bear which still exists. But unlike the Malayan sun bear, the extinct species could not stand on two feet." The discovered species had a dog-like head but bear-like body.

The Sun bear is also called "honey bear", they are the smallest and least known of all species of bears. Sun Bears could be discerned from the rest via its yellow or white mark on the chest (half-moon by shape). They are good climbers and they stay long periods in trees, and one good reason for this is they procure honey from the hives.

A Sun Bear's natural habitat is lowland tropical forest. One could weigh from 27 kilograms to 46 kilograms. The male Sun Bear is bigger than the female but just by a bit.

The head is flat and short, tiny ears, coarse fur and going back to the chest patch, there are those without it. On the average, the number of newborns are from 1 to 3, and gestating could run from 95 to more than 200 days. One Sun Bear in Berlin (zoo) reportedly gave birth twice in a single year, but that is quite unusual. The cubs remain with the mothers until they have totally grown. Behaviorally, they are active during nighttime. One could sleep and just laze in trees whose heights go from 2-7 meters. These bears do not hibernate, maybe because of the tropical habitat and the fact that their foods are available at all times. Their main diet consists of termites, worms and bees. They also take in fruit if they chance upon it. In a way, they are like lizards, for they possess long tongues which are used for catching insects from the trees, the termites from the nests. It is known that they could eat rodents and birds too.

They live in South-east Asia: Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Lao Peoples Democratic Republic, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam. Ear Habitat:Lowland tropical forest. They eat Fruits, honey, bee larvae, ants, small vertebrates such as lizards. They are omnivores.

Kinabatangan River Safari

The Kinabatangan River (Sungai Kinabatangan) is located in Sabah, eastern Malaysia, on the island of Borneo. It is the second longest river in Malaysia, with a length of 560 kilometers from its headwaters in the mountains of southwest Sabah, to its outlet at the Sulu Sea, east of Sandakan.. It is home to one of the world's most diverse ecosystems, especially around its lower basin. The Lower Kinabatangan forest-covered floodplain – one of the largest in the country – is a renowned wildlife sanctuary where exotic species such as Proboscis monkeys, Sumatran rhinos and Asian elephants can be found. A river safari is the best way to discover Kinabatangan's rich ecosystem and abundant wildlife. All 8 species of Hornbills are regular patrons of the riverbank greenery. The region is renowned for colorful tropical birds (incl. different species of hornbills, oriental darters, king-fishers etc), crocodiles, huge monitor lizards, wild pigs, several species of monkeys and tree snakes. The rainy season that strikes during November to March causes flood around the Kinabatangan River.

Brunei Mangrove Night Safari

Mangroves are a key player in the life cycle of Brunei Bay. They have been protected from development and set aside for study and visitor enjoyment in areas adjacent to Bandar Seri Begawan, the capital of Brunei Darussalam, and also in Brunei Bay, where the rivers from Temburong's National Parks flow into the bay.

Comfortable boats provide transport along the deep channels that flow amongst the mangrove islands. Engine off and paddle, or just drift with the current, watching for wildlife. Early morning and late evening are the best times to find the natural inhabitants active and visible. These are times when insects and other small prey are also active and this attracts the resident birds to emerge at the edge of waterways and clearings. It's also cooler at these times so it's more comfortable to be out exploring.

Our 5.45am boat departure to Selirong Island Reserve gives visitors an experience of dawn while travelling down the Brunei River and across the inner section of Brunei Bay. An early arrival at Selirong Island provides the best opportunity to see the local inhabitants. Low or high tide there is always activity. The birds and animals adjust their foraging and hunting activities depending on the water level. Our 4.30 pm or 7.00am boat departures for the Mangrove Safari, upstream of Bandar Seri Begawan, allows visitors to explore the mangrove channels as the sun drops lower in the sky, cool shadows spread across the water, and the local inhabitants become active. Each day is different. At Selirong Island in Brunei Bay, the Brunei Forestry Department has installed two kilometers of elevated walkways through the mangroves. This is a unique opportunity to be in a mangrove forest without being knee-deep in mud!

The walks at Selirong can be broken into two sections as a channel gives boat access to the walkway half way across the island. It’s common to see mud skippers, crabs, monitor lizards, wading birds and more. Proboscis Monkeys, Macaques and many other species also inhabit this protected mangrove island. The deep channels are home to fish, crabs, shrimps, prawns, cockles and barnacles.e public services, including education, public health and medical), housing assistance, and the general standard of living, the economic pressure that leads to habitat destruction and native animal hunting is largely Borneo wildlife like the endemic Proboscis Monkey – the world largest monkey, long-tailed macaque, water monitors lizard, common tree skink, crocodiles Porosus, flying fox, Yellow ring mangrove snake, slow Loris, fireflies, and not to forget many species of Birds include the brown cape wood pecker, egrets, little green heron, white breasted water hen, common Iora, and several kingfishers.

This special mangrove forest boat tour is a unique 4-5 hours boat trip that takes you along the most beautiful seascapes on the island where you could see plants unique to Langkawi that very few humans have seen, and majestic limestone rock formations and sea stacks rise from the sea . home to unique flowering plants found nowhere else in the world.

Home>> Mountains>> Mount Kinabalu
Mount Kinabalu

Mount Kinabalu (Malay: Gunung Kinabalu) is a prominent mountain on the island of Borneo in Southeast Asia. It is located in the East Malaysian state of Sabah and is protected as Kinabalu Park, a World Heritage Site. Kinabalu is the highest peak in Borneo's Crocker Range and is the highest mountain in the Malay Archipelago. Mount Kinabalu is also the 20th most prominent mountain in the world by topographic prominence. In 1997, a re-survey using satellite technology established its summit (known as Low's Peak) height at 4,095 metres (13,435 ft) above sea level, which is some 6 metres (20 ft) less than the previously thought and hitherto published figure of 4,101 metres (13,455 ft). Mount Kinabalu includes the Kinabalu montane alpine meadows ecoregion in the montane grasslands and scrublands biome. The mountain and its surroundings are among the most important biological sites in the world, with between 5000 and 6000 species of plants, 326 species of birds, and more than 100 mammalian species identified. Among this rich collection of wildlife are famous species such as the gigantic Rafflesia plants and the orangutan. Mount Kinabalu has been accorded UNESCO World Heritage status. Low's Peak can be climbed quite easily by a person in good physical condition and there is no need for mountaineering equipment at any point on the main route. Other peaks along the massif, however, require rock climbing skills.

History :-

British colonial administrator Hugh Low made the first recorded ascent of Mount Kinabalu's summit plateau in March 1851. Low did not scale the mountain's highest peak, however, considering it "inaccessible to any but winged animals". In April and July 1858, Low was accompanied on two further ascents by Spenser St. John, the British Consul in Brunei. The highest point of Mount Kinabalu was finally reached in 1888 by zoologist John Whitehead. British botanist Lilian Gibbs became the first woman and the first botanist to summit Mount Kinabalu in February 1910. Botanist E. J. H. Corner led two important expeditions of the Royal Society of Great Britain to the mountain in 1961 and 1964. Kinabalu National Park was established in 1964. The park was designated a natural World Heritage Site in 2000.

Climbing route :-

Climbers must be accompanied by accredited guides at all times due to national park regulations. There are two main starting points for the climb: the Timpohon Gate (located 5.5 km from Kinabalu Park Headquarters, at an altitude of 1,866 metres (6,122 ft)), and the Mesilau Nature Resort. The latter starting point is slightly higher in elevation, but crosses a ridge, adding about two kilometres to the ascent and making the total elevation gain slightly higher. The two trails meet about two kilometres before Laban Rata. Accommodation is available inside the park or outside near the headquarters. Sabah Parks has privatised Mount Kinabalu activities to an organisation called Sutera Sanctuary Lodges (also known as Sutera Harbour). The mountain may be climbed on a single day trip, or hikers may (usually) stay one night at Laban Rata Resthouse at 3,270 metres (10,730 ft) to complete the climb in 2 days, finishing the ascent and descending on the second day. The majority of climbers begin the ascent on day one of a two-day hike from Timpohon gate at 1,866 metres (6,122 ft), reaching this location either by minibus or by walking, and then walk to Laban Rata. Most people accomplish this part of the climb in 3 to 6 hours. Since there are no roads, the supplies for the Laban Rata Resthouse are carried by porters, who bring up to 35 kilograms of supplies on their backs. Hot food and beverages are available at Laban Rata. Most rooms have no hot water in the bathrooms and whilst the dining area is heated, most rooms are not. The last 2 kilometres (6,600 ft), from the Laban Rata Resthouse at 3,270 metres (10,730 ft) to Low's Peak (summit) at 4,095.2 metres (13,436 ft), takes between 2 and 4 hours. The last part of the climb is on naked granite rock. Given the high altitude, some people may suffer from altitude sickness and should return immediately to the bottom of the mountain, as breathing and any further movement becomes increasingly difficult. Staying overnight at the lodges before the climb and climbing at a lower rate of ascend appear to reduce the likelihood of altitude sickness.

Biology :-

Significantly, Mount Kinabalu along with other upland areas of the Crocker Range is well-known worldwide for its tremendous botanical and biological species biodiversity with plants of Himalayan, Australasian, and Indomalayan origin. A recent botanical survey of the mountain estimated a staggering 5,000 to 6,000 plant species (excluding mosses and liverworts but including ferns), which is more than all of Europe and North America (excluding tropical regions of Mexico) combined. It is therefore one of the world's most important biological sites.

Flora :-

The flora covers the mountain in zones of different types of habitat as one climbs up, beginning with a lowland belt of fig trees and insectivorous pitcher plants. Then between 2,600 to 3,200 m (8,530 to 10,499 ft) is a layer of short trees such the conifer Dacrydium gibbsiae and dwarf shrubs, mosses, lichens, liverworts, and ferns. Finally many of the world's richest variety of orchids are found on the high rockier slopes. These plants have high levels of endemism (i.e. species which are found only within Kinabalu Park and are not found anywhere else in the world). The orchids are the best-known example with over 800 species including some of the highly-valued Paphiopedilum slipper orchids, but there are also over 600 species of ferns (more than the whole of Africa's 500 species) of which 50 are found nowhere else, and the richest collection in the world for the Nepenthes pitcher plants (five of the thirteen are found nowhere else on earth) which reach spectacular proportions (the largest-pitchered in the world being the endemic Nepenthes rajah). The parasitic Rafflesia plant, which has the largest single flower in the world, is also found in Kinabalu (particularly Rafflesia keithii whose flower grows to 94 centimetres (37 in) in diameter), though it should be noted that blooms of the flower are rare and difficult to find. Meanwhile another Rafflesia species, Rafflesia tengku-adlinii, can be found on the neighbouring Mount Trus Madi and the nearby Maliau Basin.It’s incredible biodiversity in plant life is due to a combination of several unique factors: its setting in one of the richest plant regions of the world (the tropical biogeographical region known as western Malesia which comprises the island of Sumatra, the Malay Peninsula, and the island of Borneo), the fact that the mountain covers a wide climatic range from near sea level to freezing ground conditions near the summit, the jagged terrain and diversity of rocks and soils, the high levels of rainfall (averaging about 2,700 millimetres (110 in) a year at park HQ), and the climatic instability caused by periods of glaciation and catastrophic droughts which result in evolution and speciation. This diversity is greatest in the lowland regions (consisting of lowland dipterocarp forests, so called because the tree family Dipterocarpaceae are dominant). However, most of Kinabalu's endemic species are found in the mountain forests, particularly on ultramafic soils (i.e. soils which are low in phosphates and high in iron and metals poisonous to many plants; this high toxic content gave rise to the development of distinctive plant species found nowhere else).

Fauna :-

The variety of plant life is also habitat for a great variety of birds and animals. There are some 326 species of birds in Kinabalu Park, including the spectacular Rhinoceros Hornbill, Mountain Serpent-eagle, Dulit Frogmouth, Eyebrowed Jungle Flycatcher, and Bare-headed Laughingthrush. Twenty-four birds are mainly found on the mountain and one, the Bornean Spiderhunter, is a pure endemic. The mountain is home to some 100 mammalian species mostly living high in the trees, including one of the four great apes, the orangutan (though sightings of these are uncommon; estimates of its numbers in the park range from 25 to 120). Other mammals include three kinds of deer, the Malayan Weasel (Mustela nudipes), Oriental Small-clawed Otter (Aonyx cinerea), and Leopard Cat (Felis bengalensis). Endemic mammals include the Black Shrew (Suncus ater) and Bornean Ferret-badger (Melogale everetti). Endemic annelids number less than a dozen known species but include the Kinabalu giant red leech that preys on various earthworms, including the Kinabalu giant earthworm. The steep mountainsides with poor soil are not suitable for farming or for the timber industry so the habitats and animal life of Kinabalu remain largely intact, with about a third of the original habitat now degraded. Kinabalu Park was established in 1964 and the nearby mountains were protected as the Crocker Range National Park in 1984. However even national park status does not guarantee full protection, as logging permits were granted on Trus Madi in 1984.

Geology :-

Mount Kinabalu is essentially a massive pluton formed from granodiorite which is intrusive into sedimentary and ultrabasic rocks, and forms the central part, or core, of the Kinabalu massif. The granodiorite is intrusive into strongly folded strata, probably of Eocene to Miocene age, and associated ultrabasic and basic igneous rocks. It was pushed up from the earth's crust as molten rock millions of years ago. In geological terms, it is a very young mountain as the granodiorite cooled and hardened only about 10 million years ago. The present landform is considered to be a mid-Pliocene peneplain, arched and deeply dissected, through which the Kinabalu granodiorite body has risen in isostatic adjustment. It is still pushing up at the rate of 5 mm per annum. During the Pleistocene Epoch of about 100,000 years ago, the massive mountain was covered by huge sheets of ice and glaciers which flowed down its slopes, scouring its surface in the process and creating the 1,800-metre (5,900 ft) deep Low's Gully (named after Hugh Low) on its north side. Its granite composition and the glacial formative processes are readily apparent when viewing its craggy rocky peaks.